SpiritualWiki

Hawkins / Irrtum

Hawkins-Menu:


Wiki-Menu:  

2·2012


 

Irrtum

 

Platting mit 8 Buchten dreifach
Markus Bärlocher, Urheber

 

KultCult


 

Was wäre wenn? Geschichte mit dem Hammer

Ein Mann will ein Bild aufhängen.
Den Nagel hat er, nicht aber den Hammer.
Der Nachbar hat einen.
Also beschließt unser Mann, hinüberzugehen und ihn auszuborgen.
Doch da kommt ihm ein Zweifel:
"Was, wenn der Nachbar mir den Hammer nicht leihen will?
Gestern schon grüßte er mich nur so flüchtig.
Vielleicht war er in Eile.
Aber vielleicht war die Eile nur vorgeschützt, und er hat etwas gegen mich.
Und was? Ich habe ihm nichts angetan; der bildet sich da etwas ein.
Wenn jemand von mir ein Werkzeug borgen wollte, ich gäbe es ihm sofort.
Und warum er nicht?
Wie kann man einem Mitmenschen einen so einfachen Gefallen abschlagen?
Leute wie dieser Kerl vergiften einem das Leben.
Und da bildet er sich noch ein, ich sei auf ihn angewiesen.
Bloß weil er einen Hammer hat.
Jetzt reicht's mir wirklich."

Und so stürmt er hinüber, läutet.
Der Nachbar öffnet, doch bevor er "Guten Tag" sagen kann,
schreit ihn unser Mann an:
"Behalten Sie sich Ihren Hammer, Sie Rüpel!"
Quelle: ► Paul Watzlawick (1921-2007) österreichisch-US-amerikanischer Kommunikationswissenschaftler, Psychotherapeut, Psychoanalytiker, Soziologe, Philosoph, Autor, Anleitung zum Unglücklichsein, Piper Verlag, München,
Erstausgabe 1983, S. 37-38, 1988, 15. Auflage November 2009

Liste von irrtümlichen Auffassungen

༺༻Irrtümliche AussageErweiterte Einsicht
1. Es gibt kein Karma.Karma ist eine Tatsache – göttliche Aktion/Reaktion.
2. Ein Mensch stirbt viel zu jung!Bei der Geburt ist auf nichtlinearer Ebene der Todeszeitpunkt bereits festgelegt. Ein früher Tod ist Teil des persönlichen Karmas oder des Seelenauftrags.
3. Es gibt kein Weiterleben nach dem Tod.Die Seele lebt nach dem physischen Tod im Jenseits weiter.
4. Es gibt nur den Himmel und die Hölle.Es gibt viele abgestufte Himmel und Höllen, sogenannte "Wohnungen im Hause des Vaters". Der Geist eines Verstorbenen landet in dem Bereich des Jenseits, der seiner Bewusstseinsebene entspricht.
5. Ein Mensch bleibt nur in Erinnerung aufgrund seiner Leistungen oder Nachkommen.Gott und alle Seelen erinnern sich an alles. Das Unendliche Feld der Existenz (Akasha-Chronik) zeichnet alles auf. Nichts wird vergessen.
6. Beliebtheit und allgemeiner Konsens müssen stimmen.Popularität kann ein Symptom der Verblendung (Glamorisierung) sein.
7. Intelligenz ist ein Anzeichen von Weisheit.Intelligenz speichert Wissensdaten. Weisheit ist ein Ausdruck des göttlichen SELBSTes.
8. Geld macht glücklich.Geldbesitz und Existenzangst laufen parallel. Reiche begehen Selbstmord. Wohlstand per se vermittelt keinen Seelenfrieden. Glück stellt sich im Schwingungsfeld eines erweiterten Bewusstseinsrahmens ein.
9. Eine Notlüge schadet niemandem.Alle Unwahrheiten ziehen karmische Folgen nach sich. Das Feld übersieht nichts.
10. Ein Mensch kann sich nicht ändern.Innerhalb der Schöpfung/Evolution gibt es bei allem Möglichkeiten mit der Neigung, sich zu verwirklichen. Die unendlichen Möglichkeiten können das tatsächliche Ergebnis verändern.
11. Medienschaffende, Einflussgeber und Regierende sprechen die Wahrheit.Die glamorisierende Verblendung unter den Schönen, Reichen und Mächtigen ist statistisch gesehen weit von der Wahrheit entfernt.
12. Man kann die Wahrheit nicht vom Irrtum unterscheiden.Die Möglichkeit der Bewusstseinsmessung durch Muskeltest steht den Menschen des 3. Jahrtausends zur Verfügung.
13. Was wir nicht sehen oder glauben können, darf es nicht geben.Die lineare Welt macht nur 3% der Existenz aus. Der Großteil der Existenz ist aus irdischer Perspektive unsichtbar.
14. Man muss eine Meinung haben oder für oder gegen etwas sein.Meinungen unterliegen dem Irrtum. Das Ego will Recht haben und lechzt nach Meinung oder Standpunkten. Es glaubt, es müsse die Umwelt kontrollieren oder besprechen.
15. Würdenträger, Reiche oder Prominente sind hierarchisch bedeutender.Als Gottes Kinder sind alle Menschen ebenbürtig und mit Menschenwürde ausgestattet. Die Stolzkultur unterstützt eine außen- und statusorientierte Haltung.
16. Der Mensch beherrscht sein Schicksal.Im Bereich der Linearität ist Kontrolle illusionär. Im Rahmen seiner individuellen und kollektiven Gegebenheiten verfügt der Mensch über Entscheidungsfreiheit.
17. Übeltäter zu töten, auszuweisen oder geradezubiegen, beendigt das Böse. 
18. Gott straft die Menschen, weil sie seine Wünsche nicht erfüllen.Gott braucht nichts. Der Mensch projiziert Bedürftigkeit auf Gott.
Siehe auch: ► Gruppenstrukturen (Stämme) in Firmen und der Gesellschaft – David Logan

Zitate zum Thema Irrtum / Error

Zitate von D. Hawkins

⚠ Achtung Siehe Power vs. Truth (engl.) Januar 2013

 

  • Der grundlegende Irrtum des spirituellen Stolzes liegt in der Vorstellung und dem Herrschaftsanspruch des Egos als angeblichem Urheber und ausführendes Prinzip von Handlungen und Erfolgen des Tuns. Sein Anspruch auf Anerkennung ist mit einer Glühbirne vergleichbar, die sich das Verdienst des Lichts zuschreibt, während die Quelle ihrer Kraft aus der unpersönlichen Energie der Elektrizität stammt. Erleuchtung ist möglich. Wie man die Ebenen des Bewusstseins durchschreitet, S.172, 2008

 

  • Ein Problem bei der Benutzung des Geistes, um Wahrheit zu entdecken, besteht darin, dass er den Wald nicht von den Bäumen unterscheiden kann und sich stattdessen auf problematische, unbedeutende Randfragen und Umwege konzentriert, wie zum Beispiel: Saß der Buddha "wirklich" unter einem Bodhibaum? Oder, wo hat Jesus seine "verlorenen" Jahre verbracht? Hat sich das Rote Meer wirklich geteilt? Ist die wichtigste, ewige Wahrheit, welche die Menschheit retten würde, irgendwo in einer Höhle verloren gegangen? Wird die Welt 2068 enden? Leben wir jetzt in den "Endzeiten"? Sind UFO-Botschafter hier, um uns zu retten? Das Ego liebt es, mit hypothetischen Vorstellungen herumzuspielen, und streckt so seine Anziehung in falsche Richtungen aus. Wenn die Fragen großen Wert gehabt hätten, wären sie von Jesus, Buddha, Krishna und den großen Weisen durch die Jahrhunderte hindurch sicher erwähnt worden. Hingabe an Gott. Der mystische Weg aus der Dualität, S. 235, 2009

Quotes by D. Hawkins

⚠ Caveat See Power vs. Truth, January 2013

Personal avowals

(↓)

Moral scrupulosity is a form of neurosis.

  • Mistakes and errors are things, for which we forgive ourselves. I learned that it in counseling. I once told you I had moral over-conscience. So I would berate myself for making the slightest mistake, or error, you know. Uh ... scrupulosity, that's what they called it. Moral scrupulosity. So, moral scrupulosity is not being spiritual. It's being ... uh ... neurotic. So, I had to go for counseling [...] about moral scrupulosity, that error is intrinsic to the human and, therefore, the willingness to forgive yourself and forgive others. Forgive yourself, forgive self and forgive […] forgive others. Sedona Seminar What is Truth? The Absolute, DVD 2 of 3, track 11, minute ~56:00, 21. July 2007

 

(↓)

Hawkins referencing possible errors in his teachings.:

  • And if I make any mistakes, if any of the teachings that I've taught in these classes is in error, I promise you, I will speak for you before The Father. That it was my teaching, my error, my shortcoming. To own the source of the error is here. Prescott Seminar Freedom. Morality and Ethics, 3 DVD set, 8. November 2008
⚠ Caveat See Power vs. Truth, January 2013

(↓)

Fatal errors:

Subjectivity – Context –
Consciousness – Causality

Power vs. Force. The Hidden Determinants of Human Behavior, Introduction, S. 26, Hay House, February 2002

 

  • Along with giving up guilt, it is also very helpful to give up sin as a reality. Error is correctible; sin is a mistake and is forgiveable. Most of what people call sin is an attachment, an emotionality stemming from the child within. It is actually the child who lies, steals, cheats, calls other people names, and hits other people; therefore, sin is really immaturity and ignorance of the true nature of Reality and the nature of consciousness. The Eye of the I From Which Nothing is Hidden, S. 144, first paragraph, 2001

 

  • Within truth, no arguments are possible.
    Only that which actually exists has Reality. There is no 'true versus false'. That which is called 'false' has neither existence nor reality, and only that which is true has existence; anything thought to be otherwise is illusion and falls away. The Eye of the I From Which Nothing is Hidden, chapter 12, S. 246, 2001

 

(↓)

Love has the power to sweep away obstacles and errors.

  • Love is transformative; its power sweeps away all obstacles. It is both the means and the end. It brings forth willingness and the capacity to surrender. It brings forth compassion and the desire to understand. With understanding, forgiveness ensues. With the relinquishment of positionality, one then realizes there is nothing to forgive. Judgement dissolves and condemnation and hatred are no longer possible. Ignorance born of innocence is seen to be the only 'defect' that needs to be transcended. It is seen that the nature of Creation is as it is and not in need of correction. The Eye of the I From Which Nothing is Hidden, chapter 15, S. 295-296, 2001

 

  • Question: How do spiritual errors come about?
    Answer:  What follows may sound abstract. The error occurs within consciousness itself before there is even any 'person' involved. The error is the belief that there is an opposite to Truth. This may sound difficult unless we go back to the basic understanding that only Truth, Allness, God, existence are actual possibilities. The Eye of the I from Which Nothing is Hidden, S. 343, Veritas Publishing, revised edition 2002

 

  • No "not" is possible in Reality, which includes the totality of all that exists and therefore "IS". All error arises from the "is not" and therefore has no reality or need for it to be explained or answered. No error is possible in what actually "IS". The Eye of the I from Which Nothing is Hidden, S. 358, Veritas Publishing, revised edition 2002

 

  • The limitation of man's consciousness to a level that is vulnerable to error is historically ascribed to the vanity of the desire for power as knowledge. Thus, man, shortly after his creation, became unenlightened and subject to error. The Eye of the I from Which Nothing is Hidden, S. 402, Veritas Publishing, revised edition 2002

 

  • The lowest levels of consciousness (tamas) are expressed in society collectively as
    squalor, crime, poverty, indifference, sloth, coarseness, abusiveness, early death, high birth and infant mortality rates; drunkenness, gross language, overt hostility and defiance, lack of education, defilement of beauty, peace, and Nature, and disdain for the sacredness of life.
Cruelty is rampant, and ugliness is celebrated by grossness of musical lyrics, profanity, and sacrilege. I. Reality and Subjectivity, S. ?, Kindle location 2881, 2003

 

 

  • Past errors are to be looked at with compassion as well as responsibility, which is the only way to correct an error. One has to clarify the intention of the act at the time as well as the difference between guilt and regret. Regret is often more appropriate for past actions that did not turn out well. True guilt applies to intention, whereas regret refers to unfavorable outcome. I. Reality and Subjectivity, S. 159, 2003

 

(↓)

Question:

How can error be prevented or corrected?

  1. First, one needs to be aware of the qualities that must be inherent for Divinity to be Divinity and to be the Infinity called God, that is, beyond form; beyond duality; beyond human attributes without parts, actions, or motives; complete and total; beyond time and space, without beginning or end; and lacking in nothing. Out of this Supreme arise infinite compassion, stillness, silence, and peace.
  2. Second, one must have a knowledge of the ego, its mechanisms, and its structure, which all rely on form and duality. Then, when any variation arises from what is known to be true, as described above, the origins of the error can be diagnosed to a specific ego function that is calibratable.
  3. Third, the veracity of all teachings is subject to confirmation with the method of muscle testing and calibrating the levels of truth. Thus, these errors can be tracked to their origins, which are specifically positionalities and the true bases for the errors.
  4. Fourth, adequate explanation of the teachings of higher truth needs to be presented in sufficient detail to prevent misunderstanding. Errors in history have been due to inadequate depth and breadth of explanation, and, therefore, the expositions of truth lack the protective buttress of understanding. Errors arise from concepts because of a lack of clarity about context. They are also purposely promulgated for ulterior motives and control over others. Ultimate truth is realized as pure, radical subjectivity. It is self-revealing and beyond argument.
  5. Finally, of great value would be a reassessment of scriptures and spiritual teachings through the use of the calibration research method. Deviations can then be explained and resolved.
I. Reality and Subjectivity, chapter 18, S. 298-299, 2003

 

 

  • The power of love is demonstrated by the act of giving, and the weakness of the ego is shown by its neediness and insufficiency. Because the continuance of the ego is dependent on fulfilling its basic needs, it lives in fear (all megalomaniacs are paranoid), whereas love is fearless. Truth vs. Falsehood. How to Tell the Difference, chapter 4 The Evolution of Consciousness, S. 41, 2005

 

 

 

 

(↓)

Astral circus – glamorization of otherworldly entities

  • The so-called 'astral circus' was at its most influential in ancient Mesopotamia. The expertise of the adepts, many of whom are still the same as they were in that era, have perfected their skills over long periods of earthly time. Like an experienced expert salesman, they intuitively pick up on a vulnerability or a weakness, especially the proneness to glamorization. If such entities were indeed what they claim to be, they would have long ago evolved on to the celestial realms. Discovery of the Presence of God. Devotional Nonduality, chapter 5, S. 94, 2007

 

 

(↓)

Threshold between power vs. ‘out there’ force

  • Holding to these positions [below LoC 200] results in giving one’s power away. Doing so says that the sources of meaning, happiness, and value are something outside oneself; they are somewhere ‘out there’. These positions come from lack. "If it is out there, it is something I have to get. If it is something I have to get, it means I lack it, or that something could stand in my way of getting it." To live in that kind of world is to always live in danger and under threat because something outside of oneself can block the attainment of something or take it away. It is the world of victimhood because people have given away their power to the world. Healing and Recovery, chapter 3 Stress, S. 91, 2009

 

  • When looking at what the world calls ego, or what spiritual work calls ego, instead of condemning it, we can see, out of innocence, that is what we believed at the time. What we did was appropriate if that software program had been correct. Therefore, we do not ever really make a ‘mistake’ in our spiritual work. Everything is on purpose once we set our intention to achieve an understanding of the truth and be open to Grace so that the truth may be revealed in whatever way we wish to hold in mind, in whatever expression is most appropriate. It is important to remember that we have asked for all that is in error (i.e., ignorance) to be brought up for recognition. It is all right to do that if we realize our innate innocence at the same time. Healing and Recovery, chapter 5 Spiritual First Aid, S. 167, 2009

 

(↓)

See also:

I. Reality and Subjectivity, S. 393, 2003

 

 

(↓)

Self refuting statement

Self refuting statements, Cult FAQ, presented by NZ Cult List 1999-2015

  • Because of dualistic perception, the mind could no longer discern the abstract symbol from reality. The road to error was open and inviting, and opinion held sway, as the mind had no innate mechanism to discern truth from falsehood. As a result of dualistic mental processing, the mind had developed the capacity for repression and denial so that it could remove obstacles to achieving its goals. The mind discovered that it could deny ownership of an unwanted side of a pair of opposites and project it onto the world. Thus were born not only politics but also the well-known psychological mechanisms of splitting, repression, denial, and projection. This capacity turned out to be a fatal mechanism in that even when faced with dire results, the ego relentlessly pursued the same mistakes. Millions of people die in every generation throughout history and continue to do so in today’s world. Dissolving the Ego, Realizing the Self. Contemplations from the Teachings of David R. Hawkins, M.D., Ph.D., edited by Scott Jeffrey, chapter 2 "Nature of 'Mind'", S. 37, quote 3, Hay House, August 2011

 

 

(↓)

Differentiate:

Being - Doing - Having


 

  • Now you can do something about world peace. Unless you confront falsity [via truth calibrations] it continues on. It [falsity] does'nt disappear until you call it for what it is. Audio lecture and Q&A by David R. Hawkins, How to Instantly Tell Truth from Falsehood About Anything, part 5 of 6, presented by Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS), Shiftinaction.com, 17. September 2003, YouTube film, minute 32:00, 46:00 minutes duration, posted 27. March 2011

 

  • Nothing that you think about yourself is true, it has no validity. Whether you think you're great or whether you think you're horrible, they're both irrational. If you think you're great that's a moment of lunacy and if you think you're awful, that's an equal moment of lunacy. There's no validity in anything the ego says about itself. Sedona Seminar Causality: The Ego’s Foundation, 3 DVD set, January 2002

 

  • What we are witnessing is creation unfolding. Evolution is creation unfolding. What we view as mistakes, really represent a success, because they demonstrate the outcome of a fallacy. Sedona Seminar Serenity, 3 DVD set, 20. August 2005

 

  • One reason so few people make it to enlightenment is because you can spend a lifetime going through these highways and byways. The road is strewn with falsehood. […] There are 10,000 ways to get there [to Heaven]. Sedona Seminar Spiritual Truth vs. Spiritual Fantasy, 3 DVD set, 17. June 2006

 

  • [T[he fact that you're accountable, then is what? ... a 'safeguard'. So, it isn't that you want to live fearfully, fearful of making a mistake or fearful of a sin or something because, along with accountability also goes forgiveness. Jesus Christ died for you ... to be easier. He speaks for you, and because forgiveness is part of your inheritance. So, as a devoted spiritual student you then earn ... karmically earn the right to forgiveness, should you make a mistake ... and one mistake that we've all made was ... 'we were too young at the time!' (Laughter) We were all too young at the time to know better! (Laughter) That applies to everyone here? (Raises hand.) Yeah, we were all too young at the time! So, we forgive ourself because we're evolutionary creatures and out of our love for God, we say 'well, thank you, Lord, for the opportunity to grow and evolve and to earn ... that which we become.' Sedona Seminar What is Truth? The Absolute, DVD 2 of 3, track 11, minute 36:43, 21. July 2007

 

  • Mistakes and errors are unwitting, unwitting. Mistakes and errors. So, sometimes people, don't want to give allowance for mistakes and errors and think that an integrous person must be perfect. No. Mistakes and errors are not only possible, they're almost certain because of the karmic propensities. Karmic propensities plus the limitation of humans in general and ourselves, in particular. Sedona Seminar What is Truth? The Absolute, DVD 2 of 3, track 11, minute ~56:00, 21. July 2007

 

Zitate von anderen Quellen

Vater, vergib ihnen, denn sie wissen nicht, was sie tun. Jesus, Lukas 23, 34 (NT)

 

Einsichten

  • Es ist erstaunlich, wie vorurteilsfrei wir zu denken vermögen, wenn es gilt, eine Dummheit vor uns selbst zu rechtfertigen. Karl Heinrich Waggerl (1897-1973) österreichischer Schriftsteller, Quelle unbekannt
  • Den größten Fehler, den man im Leben machen kann, ist, immer Angst zu haben, einen Fehler zu machen. Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) deutscher Theologe, lutherischer Pastor der Bekennenden Kirche, Widerstandskämpfer, KZ-Häftling und Märtyrer des Nationalsozialismus (1906-1945), Quelle unbekannt

 

  • Eine Erkenntnis von heute kann die Tochter eines Irrtums von gestern sein. Marie Freifrau von Ebner-Eschenbach (1830-1916) österreichische Aphoristikerin, Erzählerin, Novelistin, Schriftstellerin, Gesammelte Schriften, Band 1: Aphorismen, Parabeln, Märchen und Gedichte, Gebrüder Paetel Verlag, Berlin, 1893

Literaturzitate

Maria vom Knoten

Maria vom Knoten, ich komme zu dir und trage viel Freude und Lasten mit mir.
Maria vom Knoten, wer hörte nicht drauf – der Knoten sind viel, sie gehen nicht auf.
Maria vom Knoten, wie tröstlich das klingt.
Es klingt: es gibt eine Hand, die Knoten entschlingt.
Maria vom Knoten, den Knoten hier schau!
Ich bring ihn nicht auf – hilf du heil'ge Frau.
Maria vom Knoten, der Knäuel bin ich –
Ins Letzt verwirret: Erbarme du dich!
Maria vom Knoten, du bist schon im Licht.
Du weißt es ja selbst, was mir noch gebricht.
Josef Weiger mit Ergänzungen von Günter Grimme;
St. Peter am Perlach, Augsburg, Bayern

Quotes by various other sources

Appeals

  • You are asleep and have forgotten that you are dreaming. You mistakenly believe you are awake. It's easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled. Frederick Philip Lenz, III, Ph.D. [Rama] (1950-1998) US American Buddhist spiritual teacher, source unknown

 

(↓)

Erroneous memories

  • I collaborated on a brain imaging study in 2010, and the overwhelming conclusion we reached is that the neural patterns were very similar for true and false memories. We are a long way away from being able to look at somebody's brain activity and reliably classify an authentic memory versus one that arose through some other process. Interview with Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D. (*1944) US American professor of cognitive psychology, expert researcher on the malleability and reliability of repressed memories, member of the scientific advisory boards of False Memory Syndrome Foundation, cited in: I could have sworn...Why you can’t trust your memory, presented by UK-based weekly English-language international science magazine New Scientist, Alison George, 21. August 2013

 

Conclusions

  • Every mistake has a halfway moment, a split second when it can be recalled and perhaps remedied. Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973) US American writer, Nobel laureate in literature, mostly living in China until 1934, source unknown

 

  • It is considered unhealthy in America to remember mistakes, neurotic to think about them, and psychotic to dwell upon them. Lillian Hellman (1905-1984) US American author of plays, screenplays, and memoirs, autobiographic book Scoundrel Time, 1. January 1972, Bantam Books, 1976, Back Bay Books, 1st paperback edition 1. July 2000

 

Insights

  • It's easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled. Mark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens] [Work LoC 465] (1835-1910) US American humorist, author, aphorism
  • Never mind failures; they are quite natural. They are the beauty of life, these failures. What would life be without them? It would not be worth having if it were not for struggles. Where would be the poetry of life? Never mind the struggles, the mistakes. I never heard a cow tell a lie; but it is only a cow – not a man. So never mind these failures, these backslidings; hold to the ideal a thousand times, and if you fail a thousand times, make the attempt once more. Swami Vivekananda [LoC 610] (1863-1902) Indian Hindu saint, monk, scholar

 

  • You but mistake interpretation for the truth. And you are wrong. But a mistake is not a sin, nor has reality been taken from its throne by your mistakes. God reigns forever, and His laws alone prevail upon you and upon the world. His Love remains the only thing there is. Fear is illusion, for you are like Him. A Course in Miracles, manual for teachers M-18.3.6-12, 1976, rev. 1996

 

  • People always attempt to do what they believe to be good. Socrates [LoC 540] (469-399 BC) Ancient Greek pre-Christian philosopher

 

  • Greater than all physical dangers are the tremendous effects of delusional ideas […]. The world powers that rule over humanity, for good or ill, are unconscious psychic factors, and it is they that bring unconsciousness into being […]. We are steeped in a world that was created by our own psyche. Carl Gustav Jung [LoC 520/540] (1875-1961) Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a new school of analytical depth psychology, The Symbolic Life. Miscellaneous Writings (The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 8, The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche, par. 747, Princeton University Press, 1. February 1977

 

(↓)

Affirmatives vs. negatives

  • It is the peculiar and perpetual error of the human understanding to be more moved and excited by affirmatives than by negatives. Francis Bacon [LoC 485] (1561-1626) English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, pioneer of the scientific method, author

 

  • It is a great source of error to believe that there is no perception in the soul besides those of which it is conscious. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) German polylingual philosopher, physicist, mathematician, historian, politician, diplomat, source unknown

 

(↓)

Difficulty and art to correct those who err

  • When we wish to correct with advantage, and to show another that he errs, we must notice from what side he views the matter, for on that side it is usually true, and admit that truth to him, but reveal to him the side on which it is false. He is satisfied with that, for he sees that he was not mistaken, and that he only failed to see all sides. Now, no one is offended at not seeing everything; but one does not like to be mistaken, and that perhaps arises from the fact that man naturally cannot see everything, and that naturally he cannot err in the side he looks at, since the perceptions of our senses are always true.
    People are generally better persuaded by the reasons which they have themselves discovered than by those which have come into the mind of others. Blaise Pascal [Loc 465] (1623-1662) French mathematician, physicist, inventor, Christian philosopher, writer, collection of fragments on theology and philosophy Les Pensées, T2, 1670

 

  • Even the strongest current of water cannot add a drop to a cup which is already full. The most difficult subjects can be explained to the most slow-witted man if he has not formed any idea of them already; but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to the most intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded that he knows already, without a shadow of doubt, what is laid before him. Leo Tolstoy [LoC 420, work LoC 455] (1828-1910) Russian playwright, essayist, novelist, writer, The Kingdom of God Is Within You, chapter 3, 1894

 

  • A hallucination is a fact, not an error; what is erroneous is a judgment based upon it. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) British philosopher, social critic, logician, mathematician, historian, social reformist, "pacifist", member of the Royal Society and MI5, Nobel laureate in literature, 1950, source unknown

 

 

 

  • There are two ways to be fooled.
    1. One is to believe what isn't true,
    2. the other is to refuse to accept what is true.
Søren Kierkegaard [LoC 410] (1813-1855) Danish existentialist philosopher, theologian, writer, aphorism

 

(↓)

Erroneous memories

 

(↓)

Erroneous memories

  • In real life, as well as in experiments, people can come to believe things that never really happened. Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D. (*1944) US American professor of cognitive psychology, expert researcher on the malleability and reliability of repressed memories, member of the scientific advisory boards of False Memory Syndrome Foundation, ''Eyewitness Testimony’’, S. 62, 1979

 

  • To err is human but to really screw up, you need a computer! American expression

Englische Texte – English section on Error

Errors in D. Hawkins literature

  • Question [paraphrased]: What would be the effect of the removal of the reference to God in the Constitution or the Pledge of Allegiance?
    Note: Criticism of the Pledge of Allegiance
    Answer: The calibration of the Constitution would drop from 705 to 485. [Paraphrased.]
Reference: I. Reality and Subjectivity, S. 75, 2003

 

  • Naming error: The word God is not mentioned in the US American Constitution, but a reference to the Divine is made in the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.
    We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) third US president, principal author of the Declaration of Independence, 4. Juli 1776
  • Additional referential quote: " […] firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence"

 

Source: ► The Constitution For The United States. Its Sources and Its Application
In the Articles of Confederation it is mentioned that
"it has pleased the Great Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress to approve and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual union."
Reference: ► Where is God in the Constitution?, presented by freerepublic.com Faith and Action, David W. New, Esq., November 2004

Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is a human condition of the disparity between external cues and internally held beliefs mainly defined in the mental field.
Cognitive dissonance is "a state of psychic tension caused by the simultaneous holding of mutually inconsistent attitudes or the existence of a lack of consonance between attitudes and behavior" (Sears et. al., 1985) and
"feelings of tension that arise when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions." (Myers, 1987)
Spiritual dissonance is experienced in the body as a sense of "wrongness," loss, or depletion.

 

Cognitive dissonance and self-justification when faced with one's errors and fallible nature
ChapterChapter headingLegend
1Cognitive dissonance.1
The engine of self-justification
Holding contradictions creates anxiety. People 'resolve' this conflict by "inventing a comfortable illusion"; Confirmation bias explained
Example of denial: Jean-Claude Duvalier [Baby Doc]2
2Pride, prejudice and blind spotsCognitive dissonance and prejudice; the desire to regard oneself as good may thwart one's reality check.
3Memory, the self-justifying historianImplications of the flawed human memory which does not record like a video camera
4Good intentions, bad science.
Closed loop of clinical judgment
Evidence disproving one's assumption or viewpoint, not just the evidence that supports it. "Kill Buddha."
Example of collegial rejection of scientific evidence: Ignaz Semmelweis3
5Law and disorderThe US justice system, slippery slope of police falsifying evidence, improper interrogation techniques, false confessions, prosecutorial biases
6Love's assassin
Self-justification in marriage
Overcoming the tendency of ruining marriage by self-justification emerged from cognitive dissonance
7Wounds, rifts, and warsEscalation and hardening of disagreements
Solving national and interpersonal conflicts
8Letting go and owning upTo be wrong does not equal stupid. Though momentarily painful, it is beneficial to admit "I was wrong."
Example of public admission of mistake: Alan Greenspan, October 20084

 

Sources featuring Carol Tavris, Ph.D. (*1944) US American social psychologist, author, Elliot Aronson (*1932) US American psychologist, author
Book: Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me). Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts, Mariner Books, reprint edition March 2008
Audio interview Carol Tavris on Mistakes and Skeptics, episode #55, presented by US American web radio station Skeptiko Science at the tipping point, host Alex Tsakiris, 50:12 minutes duration, 23 MB, aired 14. October 2008
Audio interview Mistakes Were Made, presented by US American radio show For Good Reason, in association with the skeptic James Randi Association, host D.J. Grothe (*1973) US American speaker, writer, YouTube film, 57:43 minutes duration, posted 30. December 2011
Video interview Interview with Carol Tavris, presented by Action Studies Institute, host, founder and director Ken Low, recording and editing by Hidden Story Productions, Vimeo film, 1:05:47, posted 14. June 2013
Further written reference: ► Book Shankar Vedantam, Indian US American science correspondent for the non-commercial US American media organization National Public Radio (NPR), The Hidden Brain. How Our Unconscious Minds Elect Presidents, Control Markets, Wage Wars, and Save Our Lives, Spiegel & Grau, 19. January 2010
Article Cognitive Dissonance: A Spiritual Perspective, presented by Mediate, Barbara Stuart, date unknown

 

  • Cognitive dissonance is the unconscious mental conflict that occurs when two attitudes, or an attitude and a behavior, or an attitude and new information, conflict with one another: "Smoking could kill me" and "smoke" is an example. Being in a state of dissonance is as unsettling, and as motivating, as hunger, and, like hunger, we seek to reduce the discomfort. The smoker will either have to quit – or justify smoking. Interview with Carol Tavris, Ph.D. (*1944) US American social psychologist, author, Elliot Aronson (*1932) US American psychologist, author, Interview on August 30, 2007 with Carol Tavris and Elliot, presented by The Whitman Institute, hosts John Esterle and Dan Clurman, 30. August 2007

 

  • Times of transitions are particularly difficult times. Paradigm shifts are painful. It is painful, for example, to overcome loss aversion or leave behind just world thinking. It is very hard for people who believe themselves to be good people (and that includes just about everybody) to accept that they have harmed themselves and others, even unintentionally. Both shame and humiliation are thorny issues; many choose self-justification instead of admitting to change.345 Cognitive dissonance is one of the causes for discomfort when there is discrepancy between what we know or believe and new information or interpretations. Traditional elites who feel entitled to supremacy resent being labeled oppressors, violently repressing shame when they lose superiority, while underlings are caught between self-disparaging shame and angry projections. Evelin Gerda Lindner, Ph.D., M.D. humiliationstudies.org (*1954) German physician, psychologist, transdisciplinary scholar in social sciences and humanities, human dignity researcher, founding president of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (HumanDHS) Gender, Humiliation, and Global Security. Dignifying Relationships from Love, Sex, and Parenthood to World Affairs, chapter 5 Humiliation Addiction: How Dangerous It Is, S. 70, Praeger, 26. February 2010

 

(↓)

Spiritual dissonance

self and not-self clashing

  • Spiritual dissonance is what occurs where our inner world meets our outer world; where what we think is true butts up against what appears to be true; where internal belief collides with external reality.  It’s the discomfort that occurs where self and not-self come into contact.
    Ego is like a thin sheath of atmosphere between the earth of self and the infinite space of not-self, holding one in and the other out. We live out our lives in this narrow band, never digging too far down or testing our upper limits.This is where our emotional energy is spent, pumped into this gap between two incompatible surfaces, keeping them from grinding against each other and jolting us out of our slumber.
    That grinding, when it does occur, is spiritual dissonance.
    The egoic wall has no independent reality. When we stop pumping energy into it, it starts dissolving. That's what ego is, a segregated state, and that's the use to which we put our emotional energy. The egoic shell in which we dwell is of our own making, like a force field that requires a constant source of emotional energy.
    Jed McKenna, US American publisher of spiritual literature, author

 

  • Sometimes people hold a core belief that is very strong. When they are presented with evidence that works against that belief, the new evidence cannot be accepted. It would create a feeling that is extremely uncomfortable, called cognitive dissonance. And because it is so important to protect the core belief, they will rationalize, ignore and even deny anything that doesn't fit in with the core belief. Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) Martinique-born Afro-French psychiatrist, philosopher, political radical, existentialist humanist, revolutionary, writer on post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism, Black Skin, White Masks, Éditions du Seuil, France, 1952, Grove Press, New York, 1967

 

  • The phenomenon – known as "backfire" – is a natural defense mechanism to avoid that cognitive dissonance. In the presence of the correct information, such people react very differently than the merely uninformed. Instead of changing their minds to reflect the correct information, they can entrench themselves even deeper. Brendan Nyhan, Ph.D. (*1978) US American political scientist, department of government, Dartmouth College, lead researcher on study at University of Michigan, 2005-2006, cited in: Article How facts backfireResearchers discover a surprising threat to democracy: our brains, presented by boston.com, Joe Keohane, 11. July 2010
    Misinformed people, particularly political partisans, when exposed to corrected facts in news stories, rarely change their minds. Often they become even more strongly set in their beliefs. Not curing misinformation, facts can actually make the belief in misinformation even stronger.

 

See also:
Classic psychology experiments
Pygmalion effect – Average people may perform at genius level.
Moral corruption by the power of controlling others – Lord of the Flies effect
Listing cognitive biases

 

Links zum Thema Irrtum / Error

Literatur

Literature (engl.)

Externe Weblinks


External web links (engl.)


Appeal to the Mind • Appeal to Emotions • Faulty Deduction • Manipulating Content • Garbled Cause and Effect • Personal attacks

Audio- und Videolinks

 

Interne Links

Wiki-Ebene

Englisch Wiki

 

 

1 Leon Festinger (1919-1989) US American social psychologist, known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford University Press, 1963

2 Jean-Claude Duvalier [Baby Doc] (*1951) Haitian dictatorial president (1971-1986), overthrown by a popular uprising, believed himself to introduce democracy in Haiti.

3 Ignaz Semmelweis, M.D. [LoC 460] (1818-1865) Hungarian physician, pioneer of antiseptic procedures

4 Congressional testimony [confession] on the financial crisis, 2008 by Alan Greenspan 23. October 2008:
"Those of us who have looked to the self-interest of lending institutions to protect shareholder's equity – myself especially – are in a state of shocked disbelief. I have found a flaw [in my free-market ideology]. I don’t know how significant or permanent it is. But I have been very distressed by that fact. […] I have been going for 40 years or more with very considerable evidence that it was working exceptionally well."
Daniel Kahnemann, Ph.D. (*1934) Israeli-American professor of psychology, Princeton, founder of behavioral economics, Nobel laureate in economic sciences, 2002, commenting Alan Greenspan's confession, How Greenspan's Framework Went Awry, YouTube film, minute 0:10, 3:03 minutes duration, posted 23. February 2009:
[Paraphrased] My theory of the world was wrong. My framework was wrong. I expected financial firms in particular to protect their interests and to protect their longterm survival. I did not expect them to engage in what turned out to be potentially suicidal policies.

5 Carol Tavris, Ph.D. (*1944) US American social psychologist, author, Elliot Aronson (*1932) US American psychologist, author, Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me). Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts, Mariner Books, reprint edition March 2008

Letzte Bearbeitung:
12.05.2017 um 04:33 Uhr

Page generated in 1,146 seconds.