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(Positive) Psychologie – Psychotherapie|Psychiatrie

 

Inhaltsverzeichnis (verbergen)

  1. 1. Seelenlehre • Wortherkunft
  2. 2. Kriterien für psychische Gesundheit
  3. 3. Gestalttherapie – Anekdote von Fritz Perls
  4. 4. Klassische psychologische Experimente
  5. 5. Persönlichkeitsstörungen in Cluster gruppiert
  6. 6. Liste der psychologischen Effekte und Syndrome
  7. 7. Der Dunning-Kruger-Effekt
  8. 8. Zitate zum Thema (Positive) Psychologie und Psychotherapie / (Positive) Psychology
    1. 8.1 Zitate allgemein
    2. 8.2 Zitate über Sex in der Therapeut/Klienten-Beziehung – Peter Rutter
    3. 8.3 General quotes
    4. 8.4 Quotes on Sex in the forbidden zone – Peter Rutter
  9. 9. Englische Texte – English section on (Positive) Psychology
    1. 9.1 Correspondences of psychology
    2. 9.2 Classic psychology experiments
    3. 9.3 Social psychology experiments
    4. 9.4 Cognitive dissonance
    5. 9.5 Listing cognitive biases
    6. 9.6 Resilience ratio: Two thirds unconscious ⇔ one third awakening
    7. 9.7 Characteristics of and myths about introverts
    8. 9.8 Extroverts • ambiverts • introverts
    9. 9.9 Extroverted and introverted nations
    10. 9.10 Optimists ⇔ pessimists
    11. 9.11 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    12. 9.12 Founding fathers of psychology
    13. 9.13 Therapeutic shitology
    14. 9.14 Not enough cow dung!
    15. 9.15 Gestalt prayer – Fritz Perls
  10. 10. Links zum Thema (Positive) Psychologie / (Positive) Psychology
    1. 10.1 Literatur
    2. 10.2 Literature (engl.)
    3. 10.3 Literature (engl.) – Robert Johnson
    4. 10.4 Externe Weblinks
    5. 10.5 External web links (engl.)
    6. 10.6 Audio- und Videolinks
    7. 10.7 Dokumentationen und Filme
    8. 10.8 Audio and video links (engl.)
    9. 10.9 Audio and video links (engl.) – Martin Seligman
    10. 10.10 Audio and video links (engl.) – Tal Ben-Shahar
    11. 10.11 Interne Links

 

 

Psyche
John William Waterhouse
(1849-1917) britischer Maler

 


 

Seelenlehre • Wortherkunft

Die Übersetzung des Wortes "Psychologie" (aus dem Griechischen ψυχολογία) bedeutet "Lehre von der Seele" und ist als solche für alle spirituell interessierten Menschen von großer Bedeutung.

 

Im wissenschaftlichen Mainstream hat die Psychologie die Seele weitgehend verloren und wird als "die empirische Wissenschaft zur Beschreibung, Erklärung und Vorhersage (Prognose) vom Erleben und Verhalten des Menschen, deren Entwicklung in der Lebensspanne und deren inneren und äußeren Ursachen und Bedingungen" definiert.

Kriterien für psychische Gesundheit

Sich "angstfrei, akzeptiert, geliebt und liebevoll, achtenswert und geachtet zu fühlen" erfüllt nach dem Psychologen Abraham Maslow die Anforderungen für seelische Gesundheit.

 

Abraham Maslow, der bekannte US-amerikanische Glücksforscher, übersuchte in den sechziger Jahren im Rahmen einer Studie zur psychologischen Gesundheit dreitausend Collegestudenten, ob sie den Kriterien für psychische Gesundheit erfüllten.
Unter allen Kandidaten fand Maslow nur einen einzigen geeigneten Probanden, der die Kriterien erfüllte.

Gestalttherapie – Anekdote von Fritz Perls

Frederick S. Perls, der US-amerikanische Vater der Gestalttherapie, Autor von Büchern wie Das Ich, der Hunger und die Aggression wollte auch in seiner Sterbestunde im Krankenhaus die Kontrolle behalten:
Eine Krankenschwester berichtet davon, dass sie dem sterbenskranken Perls geraten hatte, im Bett zu bleiben und die Bettpfanne zu benutzen, anstatt zur Toilette zu gehen, da ihm das Aufstehen gegenwärtig das Leben kosten könne. Ungeachtetdessen hievte er sich aus dem Bett und sagte:

Niemand sagt mir, was ich tun soll.

Es waren seine letzten Worte, ehe er zu Boden fiel und starb.

 

  • I am I – and you are you.
    I am not in this world to live up to your expectations.
    And you are not in this world to live up to mine.
    I do my thing – and you do your thing
    and if by chance we meet – it's beautiful.
    And if not – it can't be helped.
    The Gestalt Prayer by Fritz Perls (1893-1970) German-born US American psychiatrist, psychotherapist, Gestalt Therapy pioneer, source unknown

Klassische psychologische Experimente

Liste der klassischen Experimente in der Psychologie
༺༻JahrPsychologisches ExperimentExperimentator / StudienleiterLebenszeit
1.1948Selbsterfüllende ProphezeiungRobert K. Merton1910-20031
2.1956Kognitive DissonanzLeon Festinger et al.1919-19892
3.1956Theorie der KonformitätSolomon Asch1907-19963
4.1959Theorie der Zwangserfüllung
Forced Compliance
Leon Festinger
James M. Carlsmith
1919-1989
*19594
5.1963Theorie der BewusstseinskontrolleRobert Jay Lifton*19265
6.1966Behavioristische Verstärkerpläne:
Theorie der Kontrollüberzeugungen
Julian B. Rotter1916-20146
7.1966Selektive WahrnehmungRaul Hernandez-Peon1924-19687
8.1969DeindividuationPhilip G. Zimbardo*19338
9.1972Rosenhan-Experiment
Zuverlässigkeit der psychiatrischen Diagnose von Patienten
David Rosenhan1929-2012
10.1974AttributionstheorienIrving B. Weiner*19339
11.1974Gehorsamkeitsbereitschaft gegenüber AutoritätenStanley Milgram1933-198410
12.1975Experiment der erlernten HilflosigkeitMartin Seligman, Ph.D.*194211
13.1979Libet-ExperimentBenjamin Libet1916-2007
Referenzen:
► G. Krampen, IPC-Fragebogen zu Kontrollüberzeugungen, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1981
► U. Klages, Fragebogen irrationaler Einstellungen (FIE), Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1989
► D. Beckmann, E. Brähler, H.-E. Richter, Der Gießen-Test (GT), 4. überarbeitete Auflage Verlag Hans Huber, Bern, 1990
Diagnostisches und Statistisches Manual Psychischer Störungen. DSM IV, 2. verbesserte Auflage Hogrefe, Göttingen,
     Herausgeber American Psychiatric Association, 1998
Source:
► Article by Carol Giambalvo, Post-Cult Problems: An Exit Counselor's Perspective, published by "AFF News", volume 1, #2, 1995, cited in:
     Michael Langone, Ph.D., US American counseling psychologist specialized in research about "cultic" groups and psychological
     manipulation, executive director of the International Cultic Studies Association (ICSA), editor of the journal Cultic Studies Review,
     Recovery from Cults. Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1st edition 17. June 1995
Quelle: ► de.Wikipedia Eintrag Liste der klassischen Experimente in der Psychologie
Siehe auch: ► Kontrolle und ► Kulte
See also: ► Classic psychology experiments

Persönlichkeitsstörungen in Cluster gruppiert

Cluster-NameEigenschaften DSM-5-TypisierungBeschreibung ✣ Verhaltensmerkmale
Cluster·A Sonderbar, exzentrischParanoide PS
Schizoide PS
Schizotypische·PS
Cluster-A-Persönlichkeitsgestörte gehören zu den schizophrenienahen PS. Sie sind misstrauisch, sonderbar, exzentrisch und wirken affektarm bis gefühlskalt. Bei vermeintlichen Kränkungen und Bedrohung kann die Stimmung rasch in Wut umschlagen. Sie leben isoliert und haben kaum zwischenmenschliche Kontakte.
Cluster B Dramatisch, emotionalBorderline-PS
Histrionische PS
Antisoziale PS
Narzisstische PS
Cluster-B-Persönlichkeitsgestörte haben ein geringes Selbstwertgefühl, so dass bei Kritik Gefühle wie Wut, Scham oder Demütigung aufkommen. Sie sind launenhaft, impulsiv, stark wütend, unfähig, ihre Wut zu beherrschen. Das Beziehungsverhalten ist tendenziell geprägt von Idealisierung und Entwertung, Schwierigkeiten im Umgang mit Nähe und Distanz. Selbstschädigende und suizidale Verhaltensweisen treten bei bestimmten Ausprägungen dieser Persönlichkeitsstörungen häufiger auf, manchmal auch Fremdaggressivität.
Cluster C Ängstlich, vermeidend Vermeidende PS
Dependente PS
Zwanghafte PS
Passiv-aggressive PS
Cluster-C-Persönlichkeitsgestörte sind ängstlich und furchtsam, übermäßig gewissenhaft, wenig flexibel, tendenziell passiv-aggressiv. Sie fühlen angespannt, besorgt, hilflos und abhängig. Sie sind leicht verletzbar durch Kritik oder Ablehnung und leiden unter massiven Trennungsängsten.
Referenz: de.Wikipedia-Eintrag Persönlichkeitsstörung [Stand Mai]
Referenz: ► Narzissmus und ► Angst und ► Emotionen

 

Anhand der bisher einzigen Studie [2001] in Deutschland hinsichtlich der Häufigkeit von Persönlichkeitsstörungen] leiden ~9,4% der deutschen Gesamtbevölkerung an einer Persönlichkeitsstörung, unter psychiatrischen Patienten ist der Anteil mit 40-60% deutlich größer.12
Männer: Etwa 80% der dissozial Persönlichkeitsgestörten sind männlich.
               Schizotypische und die paranoide PS kommt bei Männern vermutlich häufiger vor.
Frauen: Histrionische, abhängige und die Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörungen scheinen kommen bei Frauen öfter vor.

Liste der psychologischen Effekte und Syndrome

UNFERTIG

Alphabetisch geordnete Liste von Effekten und Syndromen in der Psychologie
༺༻EffektBeschreibungBeispielForscher
 1.Aha-Effekt
Heureka-Erlebnis
Augenblick, wenn man nach langem Grübeln eine Sache schließlich versteht oder die Lösung des Problems erkennt  
2.AnkereffektWahrnehmungsstörung. Um den Wert einer Sache bemessen zu können, sucht das menschliche Gehirn nach Vergleichswerten. Zur Not begnügt sich das Gehirn mit einer völlig aus der Luft gegriffenen Zahl als Bezugspunkt.Gäste eines Restaurants mit dem Namen "Studio 97" gaben darin durchschnittlich 8 Dollar mehr aus als die Gäste des Restaurants namens "Studio 17".Psychologen Clayton R. Critcher und Thomas Gilovich
3.Assimilationseffekt Angleichungseffekt Reflected-Glory-EffectMarketingerfahrung: Wenn jemand ein Produkt besser bewertet, weil es mit einem (positiv besetzten) Produkt zusammen vermarktet wird (Co-Branding)Nach iPod ⇒ iPhone. Effekt funktioniert auch bei Personen in Form eines Imagetransfers. In Wahljahren lassen sich Politiker gern zusammen mit Gewinnern und anderen Sympathen ablichten. 
4.Barnum-Effekt
Forer-Effektt
Menschen die Neigung haben, vage und allgemeingültige Aussagen über sie als zutreffende Beschreibung zu akzeptieren.  
4.Begründungs-EffektMenschen reagieren stark auf kausale Herleitungen (Begründungen), insbesondere auf das Wort "weil". Selbst wenn eine Begründung tautologisch und fadenscheinig ist, machen die Leute, was von ihnen zuvor verlangt wurde."Und jetzt lesen Sie bitte weiter, weil das gut für Sie ist."Psychologen: Ellen Langer, Robert Cialdini
4.Broken-Windows-Effekt Wenn in einer Straße nur ein Haus mit ein paar zerborstenen Fensterscheiben steht, dann dauert es nicht lange, bis der ganze Wohnblock verfällt.Kees Keizer und Kollegen, Universität von Groningen, Niederlande
4.Peitschenschlag-Effekt
Bullwhip effect
Zentrales Problem im Supply-Chain-Management. In Lieferketten (Produzent, Großhändler, Händler, Lieferant) kann die Nachfrage auf den höheren Stufen der Lieferkette enorm schwanken, obwohl beim Händler die Produkte selbst kaum nachgefragt werden.'-Procter & Gamble ließ die Nachfrage nach Pampers-Windeln untersuchen.Entdeckt von Forrester, 50-er Jahre
Geprägt als Begriff von Procter & Gamble
4.Schmetterlings-Effekt
Butterfly effect
 Name einer (unrealistischen) TheorieDas Schlagen der Flügel eines einzigen Schmetterlings einen Wirbelsturm auf der anderen Seite des Globus auslösen.
4.Bystander-EffektBei Notfällen nimmt die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass den Betroffenen geholfen wird, mit steigender Anzahl der Umherstehenden ab.Jeder Passant durchläuft einen Fünf-Stufen-Prozess, wobei auf jeder Stufe Umherstehende ein zunehmendes Hindernis bilden, ehe er sich entscheidet, einem Unfallopfer zu helfen.Sozialpsychologen Latané und Darley
4.Clooney-EffektZugezogene prominente Nachbarn lassen Hauspreise in die Höhe schnellen.Seit sich Clooney und später Brad Pitt am Comer See eine Ferienvilla zugelegt hat, florierte der Immobilienmarkt am nahe gelegenen Lago Maggiore und um Como.Namensgeber: Schauspieler George Clooney
4.'DopplereffektAkustisches Phänomen, wonach sich beim Vorbeifahren eines Fahrzeugs die Tonhöhe des Geräuschs ändertDoppler ging irrtümlich davon aus, dass die Eigenbewegung der Sterne, das Licht und die Farbe eines Sterns beeinflussten.Christian Doppler, ~1850
4.Reputationseffekt
Zitierkartell,
Dutch admiral paradigm
Wissenschaftler haben mehrfach beobachtet, dass gegenseitiges Loben Karrieren beflügeln kann.Bevor zwei niederländische Kadetten in den Krieg zogen, schworen sie sich gegenseitig, nur Gutes über die Taten des anderen zu berichten. Beide gelangten in den Rang der jüngsten Admiräle der Niederlande.Namensgeber: zwei niederländische Kadetten-'
4.Fischteicheffekt
Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect (BFLPE)
Tritt auf, wenn Schüler in einer Klasse mit leistungsschwächeren Mitschülern eine höhere Lernmotivation entwickeln. Der Grund: Ihre Talente fallen dort mehr auf, werden besser bewertet, was sie noch mehr anspornt. Es soll Eltern geben, die ihre Kinder genau deshalb auf Schulen schicken, deren Schüler einen eher mäßigen Ruf haben.
4.'''Framingeffekt zeigt, wie sehr das Umfeld oder die Art wie uns Informationen präsentiert werden, unsere Entscheidung beeinflusst. Bestes Beispiel: das halbvolle Glas. Je nachdem, ob es als „halbvoll“ oder „halbleer“ präsentiert wird, verbucht es das Gehirn als Gewinn oder Verlust. Anderes Beispiel: Konsumenten kaufen lieber Fleisch, das zu 75 Prozent aus Magerfleisch besteht, als jenes, das 25 Prozent Fett enthält.
4.'''Gecko-Effekt zeigt, dass an etwas, das stark haftet, nicht unbedingt alles kleben bleibt. Geckos können mit ihren Füßen zwar überall mühelos kleben bleiben, während an ihren Füßen selbst nichts haften bleibt.
4.Grapefruit-Effekt'- warnt vor gefährlichen Wechselwirkungen von Fruchtsäfte und Arzneimitteln. Ein Glas Pampelmusensaft kann zum Beispiel aus einer normalen Tablette eine tödliche Überdosis machen.  
4.'''Halo-Effekt wurde von Edward Lee Thorndike entdeckt und beschreibt einen Wahrnehmungsfehler, bei dem einzelne Eigenschaften einer Person so dominant wirken, dass sie einen überstrahlenden Gesamteindruck erzeugen. Etwa: Wer besonders dick ist, wird vor allem über seinen Körperumfang wahrgenommen – und steht damit sofort im Generalverdacht maßlos, faul, willensschwach oder gar dumm zu sein.
4.'''Hawthorne-Effekt geht auf ein Experiment um 1924 in den Hawthorne-Werken der Western Electric in Cicero/Illinois zurück. Die Forscher wollten wissen, ob verbesserte Lichtverhältnisse die Produktivität steigern können. Anfangs sah es danach aus, doch dann stellte sich heraus: Die Probanden arbeiteten nur besser, weil sie wussten, dass sie beobachtet werden. Der Effekt zeigt zugleich, dass Menschen eine erlernte Ansicht darüber haben, was ihre maximale Leistungskraft anbelangt und dass diese Grenze oft willkürlich gewählt ist. Man darf annehmen, dass die Hawthorne-Arbeiter schon unter Dämmerlicht ihr Bestes gaben. Aber jedes Mal, wenn die Forscher ein Experiment ankündigten, waren sie in der Lage, ihre Schaffenskraft zu steigern.
4.'''Jesaja-Effekt geht auf die biblischen Prophezeiungen des Propheten Jesaja zurück und bedeutet: Solche Weissagungen lenken unseren Blick auf die zukünftige Folgen unserer heutigen Handlungen. Dennoch können wir selber wählen, welches Schicksal uns widerfahren soll, indem wir in diesem Moment so oder so entscheiden.
4.'''JoJo-Effekt bezeichnet die unerwünschte und schnelle Gewichtszunahme nach einer Diät. Oft ist das neue Gewicht danach sogar höher als das Ausgangsgewicht.
4.'''Kennedy-Effekt geht auf das gleichnamige Buch von Nikolaus B. Enkelmann zurück und beschreibt umgangssprachlich, wie man mit Charisma zu Macht und Einfluss gelangt.
4.'''Kobraeffekt stammt aus der Zeit der britischen Kolonialherrschaft in Indien. Damals gab es eine Schlangenplage. Der britische Gouverneur setzte daraufhin ein Kopfgeld auf jede erlegte Kobra aus. Effekt: Die pfiffigen Inder züchteten die Schlangen, um sie anschließend zu enthaupten und abzukassieren. Als das aufflog, wurde die Prämie abgesetzt. Zweiter Effekt: Die Leute ließen alle Kobras frei, die sie noch besaßen. Die anschließende Plage war schlimmer als die davor.
4.'''Kuleshov-Effekt wurde von dem sowjetischen Regisseur und Filmtheoretiker Lev Kuleshov als erstes beschrieben: Weil das Gehirn versucht, Bilder (oder wie im Film aufeinander folgende Einstellungen) zu Zusammenhängen zusammenzufügen, selbst wenn diese nicht zusammen gehören, interpretieren wir sie nicht neutral. Kuleshovs Kollege, Ivan Mosschuchin, trieb diese Montagekunst bis zum Extrem. Dabei wurde dasselbe neutrale Gesicht eines Schauspielers immer wieder mit anderen Bildern gegengeschnitten – prompt veränderte sich die Wirkung. Gesicht und ein voller Suppenteller: hungrig. Gesicht und strahlende Sonne: freudig. Gesicht und Beerdigung: traurig. Psychologische Studien zeigen, dass dasselbe auf der Straße passiert oder wenn wir anderen Menschen begegnen und diese sofort beurteilen.
4.'''Luzifer-Effekt geht auf das gleichnamige Buch des US-Sozialpsychologen Philip Zimbardo zurück. Darin erläutert er, wie anfällig wir alle für die Versuchungen „der finsteren Seite“ sind. Zimbardo ist weltweit bekannt als der Kopf hinter dem Stanford Prison Experiment, bei dem eine Gruppe freiwilliger Studenten zufällig in „Wärter“ und „Häftlinge“ aufgeteilt wurde, um dann in einem simulierten Gefängnis zu arbeiten und zu leben. Innerhalb einer Woche musste das Experiment abgebrochen werden, da die Studenten sich in brutale, sadistische Wärter oder emotional gebrochene Gefangene verwandelt hatten.
4.'''Matthäus-Effekt leiten Soziologen in Anlehnung an ein berühmtes Zitat aus dem biblischen Gleichnis von den anvertrauten Talenten im Matthäus-Evangelium (Kapitel 25, Vers 29) ab: „Denn wer da hat, dem wird gegeben werden, und er wird die Fülle haben; wer aber nicht hat, dem wird auch, was er hat, genommen werden.“ Der Effekt besagt, Glück und Erfolg stecken an. Einmal da, vermehren sie sich nahezu automatisch und exponenziell. Der US-Soziologe Robert K. Merton formulierte 1968 dieses Prinzip der positiven Rückkopplung auch als success breeds success. Menton bezog seine These damals allerdings auf die Zitierhäufigkeit bekannter Wissenschaftsautoren: Er konnte nachweisen, dass prominente Autoren aufgrund ihres Bekanntheitsgrades wesentlich häufiger zitiert wurden als unbekannte, was wiederum die Prominenz der Gurus noch weiter steigerte.
4.'''McGurk-Effekt geht auf den Entwicklungspsychologen Harry McGurk zurück, der herausfand, dass zu viele Sinnesinformationen (Wahrnehmung eines akustischen Sprachsignals und gleichzeitige Beobachtung von Lippenbewegungen) unsere Wahrnehmung stören, woraus dann eigenartige Realitäten entstehen: Wir hören etwas anderes, weil wir glauben es zu sehen.
4.'''Obelix-Effekt ist benannt nach dem gleichnamigen Gallier im Asterix-Comic, der stets neidvoll zuschauen muss, wie sich seine Freunde beim Zaubertrank-Ausschank stärken – nur er bekommt nichts ab. Auf den Büroalltag übertragen: Den Effekt erlebt jeder, der von seinen Kollegen nie gefragt wird, ob er mit zum Mittagessen mitkommen mag.
4.'''Placebo-Effekt beschreibt, dass etwa Tabletten, die keine Wirkstoffe enthalten, trotzdem heilen können – nur weil der Patient an dessen Wirkung glaubt. Das Gegenteil davon ist übrigens der Noceboeffekt: Es treten unerwünschte (schädliche) Nebenwirkungen auf, weil der Patient sie erwartet.
4.'''Pygmalion-Effekt (auch Rosenthal-Effekt) wurde von den Psychologen Robert Rosenthal und Lenore Jacobson 1968 beschrieben. Damals teilten Sie Lehrern mit, dass diese aufgrund bisheriger, guter Leistungen im kommenden Schuljahr eine Klasse übernehmen dürften, die sich aus den intelligentesten Schülern zusammensetzt. Nach Ablauf des Schuljahres waren diese Klassen tatsächlich besser als alle anderen, ihre Noten, selbst der IQ der Schüler lag über 20 Punkte höher. Allerdings hatten die Psychologen gelogen. Die Klassen waren lediglich eine Zufallsauswahl. Weil aber Schüler glaubten, zu den Besten zu gehören und auch die Lehrer ihnen mehr zutrauten, stieg die Leistungs- und Lernkurve.
4.'''Rajkov-Effekt geht auf den russischen Psychotherapeuten Vladimir Rajkov zurück und ist auch bekannt als die „Methode des geborgten Genies“. Rajkov versetzte seine Probanden in einen Zustand der Tiefenhypnose und suggerierte ihnen, dass sie per Reinkarnation ein herausragender Kopf der Geschichte gewesen seien. Interessanterweise waren sie in diesem Zustand in der Lage, annäherungsweise deren Fertigkeiten zu entwickeln, die sonst weit über ihren eigenen lagen.
4.'''Reaktanzeffekt beschreibt die psychologische Neigung von Menschen, Gruppen oder Organisationen, sich gegen Entwicklungen zu wehren oder aber sogar, neuerlich verbotene Handlungen – insgeheim oder offensichtlich – weiterhin auszuführen.
4.'''Rezenz-Effekt (auch Primäreffekt oder Primacy-Recency-Effekt) ist ein Kurzzeitgedächtnis-Phänomen. Kurz gesagt sorgt er dafür, dass wir jüngere Informationen besser erinnern als ältere. Deswegen sollte etwa die wichtigste Aussage eines Vortrags stets am Ende kommen (oder dort noch einmal wiederholt werden). Und deshalb wird bei einem Werbespot das beworbene Produkt auch immer als Closer gezeigt.
4.'''Ringelmann-Effekt beschreibt, dass Menschen in der Gruppe eine geringere Leistung erbringen, als aufgrund der summierten Einzelleistungen zu erwarten wäre. Gemeint ist damit aber nicht soziales Faulenzen, sondern vielmehr den Motivationsverlust und der daraus resultierende Leistungsabfall, der in Gruppen interessanterweise entstehen kann.
4.'''Slashdot-Effekt tritt auf, wenn etwa ein Eintrag in einem bisher kaum bekannten Blog von einer großen Webseite aufgegriffen wird, was binnen Minuten einem enormen Besucherandrang führt – teilweise gar bis der Server unter der Last zusammenbricht. Dann wurde die Seite geslashdottet.
4.'''Streisand-Effekt ist ein Phänomen im Internet: Der Versuch, negative Informationen über sich im Web zu entfernen, kann dazu führen, dass diese noch stärker verbreitet werden. Statt dass die Informationen unterdrückt werden, breiten sie sich durch so genannte Spiegelungen und Zitierungen erst recht aus. Seinen Namen verdankt der Effekt Barbra Streisand, die den Fotografen Kenneth Adelman und die Webseite Pictopia.com auf 50 Millionen US-Dollar verklagte, weil dort eine Luftaufnahme ihres Hauses zwischen 12.000 anderen Fotos von der Küste Kaliforniens zu finden war. Adelman behauptete, er habe das Anwesen am Strand fotografiert, um Küstenerosionen für das California Coastal Records Project zu dokumentieren. Der Journalist Paul Rogers bemerkte später, dass das Bild von Streisands Haus im Internet sehr beliebt war.
4.'''Valins-Effekt beschreibt das Phänomen, dass körperliche Reaktionen, etwa erhöhter Puls beim Anblick eines Bildes, die Bewertung dieses Bildes beeinflussen können.
4.'''Veblen-Effekt (auch Snob-Effekt) ist ein Konsumeffekt, der sich vor allem bei sogenannten Prestige- oder Luxusgütern beobachten lässt. Kurz gesagt kommt es bei diesen Gütern zu einer reziproken Nachfragereaktionen: Obwohl der Preis steigt, steigt auch die Nachfrage.
4.'''Vorführ-Effekt bedeutet: Ausgerechnet dann, wenn man einen Regelfall anderen zeigen möchte, kommt es zum Ausnahmezustand – es gelingt nicht.
4.'''Weihnachtseffekt nennen Paarforscher das Phänomen, das in Fernbeziehungen regelmäßig für Spannungen sorgt: Beide haben eine genaue Vorstellung wie das nächste Treffen ablaufen sollte – nur leider jeder eine andere. Enttäuschung und Streit sind dann beim Wiedersehen programmiert.
4.'''Werther-Effekt beschreibt ein Nachahmungphänomen. In diesem Fall lösen ausführliche Medienberichte über einen Selbstmord eine signifikante Zahl von Nachahmungs-Suiziden aus. Der Ursprung des Effektes geht auf den Goethe-Roman „Die Leiden des jungen Werthers“ aus dem Jahr 1774 zurück. Damals löste das Buch eine regelrechte Suizid-Epidemie unter jungen Menschen aus.
4.'''Zeigarnik Effekt geht auf die Psychologin Bluma W. Zeigarnik zurück, die 1927 feststellte, dass wir uns unbeantwortete Fragen oder noch offene Aufgaben besser merken. Deswegen wird der Zeigarnik-Effekt auch schon mal Cliffhanger genannt: Mit dessen Hilfe, werden dann zum Beispiel Leser dazu gebracht, eine Werbung anzusehen oder einen Artikel weiter zu lesen, weil sie wissen wollen, wie es…
4.'''Zero-Price-Effekt beschreibt einen typischen Verkäufertrick. Dabei wird das Angebot mit einer vermeintlichen Gratis-Dreingabe gekoppelt, ein sogenanntes Lockvogel-Angebot. Der Online-Buchhändler Amazon hat damit gute Geschäfte gemacht: Ab einem bestimmten Bestellwert war der Warenversand umsonst. Dadurch bestellten viele Kunden mehr Bücher als sie eigentlich brauchten, nur um Portokosten zu sparen.
Quelle: ►

Der Dunning-Kruger-Effekt

Dunning-Kruger-Effekt = Mangelnde Selbsteinschätzung und Fach- und Sachkenntnis eines Anfängers
  • [Übertragene Kurzfassung] Schwache Leistungen (Erfassen von Texten, Schachspielen, Autofahren) von Amerikanern (nicht Asiaten) gehen mit größerer Selbstüberschätzung einher als stärkere Leistungen. Unwissenheit führt (bei Amerikanern) oft zu mehr Selbstvertrauen als Wissen und Erfahrung.
    Die Schlussfolgerung aus den Studienserien der beiden Wissenschaftler Justin Kruger und David Dunning an der Cornell Universität (1999) bescheiningt, unerfahrene (ignorante) Menschen
    ➤ neigen dazu, ihre Fähigkeiten zu überschätzen,
    ➤ können überlegene Fähigkeiten bei anderen nicht erkennen,
    ➤ können das Ausmaß ihrer Inkompetenz nicht zu erkennen,
    ➤ können durch Bildung/Übung ihre Kompetenz steigern,
    ➤ können durch Bildung/Übung lernen, sich und andere besser einzuschätzen.
    ➤ Die Geschicklichkeit, die erforderlich ist, um einen Lösungsweg zu finden, ermöglicht auch die
       Erkenntnis, dass die richtige Antwort gefunden wurde.

 

Verhältnis von Selbsteinschätzung / Selbstvertrauen ⇔ fundiertem Fachwissen / Können
= Unterentwickelte Selbsterkenntnis

Zitate zum Thema (Positive) Psychologie und Psychotherapie / (Positive) Psychology

Zitate allgemein

Empfehlungen

  • Wenn wir die Menschen nur nehmen, wie sie sind, so machen wir sie schlechter
    wenn wir sie behandeln als wären sie, was sie sein sollten, so bringen wir sie dahin, wohin sie zu bringen sind.
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) deutscher Universalgelehrter, Bühnendichter, Schriftsteller, Entwicklungsroman Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, Buch VIII, Kapitel 4, Johann Friedrich Unger, Berlin, 1795-1796, Herausgeber Erich Trunz, Goethe Werk, Hamburger Ausgabe in 14 Bänden, Verlag C.H.Beck, München, 2008
  • Nach allem, was wir wissen, führt der Weg zu einem besseren Leben nicht über Euphorie oder Ekstase, sondern über die unscheinbare 3-zu-1-Formel. Interview mit Dr. Barbara Fredrickson (*1964) US-amerikanische Professorin für (Positive) Psychologie, Universität von North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Glücksforscherin, Templeton-Preis-Trägerin, präsentiert von der deutschen Monatsfachzeitschrift Psychologie Heute, Datum unbekannt

 

  • Die Psychologie hat in ihrer langen Geschichte stets einen starken Hang zur monadischen Auffassung vom Menschen gezeigt und daher zur Reifikation (Verdinglichung) dessen, was sich nun mehr und mehr als komplexe Strukturen (patterns) und Wechselwirkungen erweist. Paul Watzlawick (1921-2007) österreichisch-amerikanischer Kommunikationswissenschaftler, Psychotherapeut, Psychoanalytiker, Soziologe, Philosoph, Autor, Janet H. Beavin, Don D. Jackson, Menschliche Kommunikation. Formen, Störungen, Paradoxien, "Pragmatische Axiome – ein Definitionsversuch", S. 23, Huber Hans, Erstauflage 1967, 10. unveränderte Auflage März 2000

 

  • Die meisten Leute erzählen einem, dass sie aus dem Kindergarten heraus wollen. Glauben Sie ihnen nicht. Glauben Sie ihnen wirklich nicht! Alles, was sie wollen, ist, ihr kaputtes Spielzeug wieder repariert bekommen:
    "Ich möchte meine Frau wiederhaben.
    Ich möchte meinen Arbeitsplatz wiederhaben.
    Ich möchte mein Geld wiederhaben, mein Ansehen, meinen Erfolg!"
Nur das möchten sie: ihr Spielzeug zurück. Das ist alles. Sogar der beste Psychologe wird Ihnen sagen, dass die Leute eigentlich nicht geheilt werden wollen. Was sie wollen, ist Linderung und Trost, denn eine Heilung ist schmerzhaft. Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) indischer katholischer Jesuitenpriester, Psychotherapeut, spiritueller Führer, Autor, Der springende Punkt. Wach werden und glücklich sein, Herder, Freiburg, 1991, 10. Juli 2002

 

Referenz: de.Wikiquote-Eintrag Psychologie und ► Psychoanalyse und ► Psychiatrie

Zitate über Sex in der Therapeut/Klienten-Beziehung – Peter Rutter

Dr. med. Peter Rutter, US-amerikanischer Jungscher Psychiater, Autor,
Sex in der verbotenen Zone. Wenn Männer mit Macht das Vertrauen von Frauen missbrauchen
Leseprobe, Arbor, Freiamt im Schwarzwald, 15. Oktober 2002

 

  • Erfolg [im Berufsleben] setzt einen Mann einem höheren Risiko aus, sich einzubilden, er könne seine eigenen Regeln aufstellen und seiner Aussage (oder Ausflüchte/Erklärungen), falls doch eine Frau gegen ihn antritt, würde eher geglaubt als der Frau. In den meisten Fallbeispielen, die ich für dieses Buch gesammelt habe, galt der Mann, der eine sexuelle Beziehung [mit einer Schutzbefohlenen] innerhalb der verbotenen Zone unterhielt, als hoch angesehenes Mitglied seines Berufsstands.

 

  • Die Art wie eine Frau in Vertrauensbeziehungen behandelt wird, kann den Unterschied ausmachen, ob sie ihre Weiblichkeit als schätzenswerte und würdevolle Erscheinung oder als ausbeutbare Ware erlebt. S. 30

 

  • Stellen Sie sich einen Arzt, einen Anwalt, einen Pfarrer, einen Professor oder einen Geschäftsmann, kurz einen Mann vor, der seine sogenannten weiblichen Gefühle nie anerkennen konnte. Ihm wurde effektiv beigebracht, sich vor ihnen zu fürchten. Sein Blick schweift durchs Zimmer und fällt auf die Frau, mit der er eine professionelle Nähe aufgebaut hat. Angesichts des inneren Bildes einer Frau, das er in sich trägt, löst sich ihre wirkliche Identität auf. Sobald sich Fantasie und Wirklichkeit überschneiden, fängt der Mann an, die "weibliche" Gefühlskraft und das Geheimnis in ihren Körper und Geist zu projizieren, von der er selbst abgeschottet hat. Er wird sich zu ihr hingezogen fühlen – aus Gründen der Ganzwerdung. Er wird die Frau berühren wollen, von der er hofft, sie könne ihm einen ungekannten neuen Born der Lebendigkeit bieten. S. 89 [engl. Original, 1989]

 

Artikel (engl.) von Dr. med. Peter Rutter, US-amerikanischer Jungscher Psychiater, Autor, Sex in der verbotenen Zone, präsentiert von der internationalen Zeitschrift für Pastoren Ministry, Januar 1992

 

  • Ich brauchte beinahe ein Jahrzehnt, um aufhören zu können an den Mythos des wohltätigen Arztes zu glauben. Ich musste mir eingestehen, dass auch in mir eine Sehnsucht nach so einem verbotenen Abenteuer vorhanden war, und war schockiert, als ich entdeckte, dass ein Psychiater, der mein Mentor gewesen war, seit Jahren geschlechtlich mit weiblichen Patientinnen verkehrte. Mittlerweile habe ich herausgefunden, dass sexuelle Ausbeutung von Frauen, die unter der Obhut oder Führung von Männern stehen, in der Tat recht häufig geschieht. Nicht nur von männlichen Ärzten und Therapeuten, sondern auch von Geistlichen, Anwälten, Lehrern und Mentoren am Arbeitsplatz wird ein bemerkenswert ähnliches Muster des sexuellen Beischlafs praktiziert.

 

  • Sex in der verbotenen Zone bedeutet, dass es zwischen einem Mann und einer Frau, die seiner Aufsicht als Mentor in einer beruflichen Beziehung untersteht, Sexualkontakte geben kann, und zwar immer dann, wenn die betroffene Frau wesentliche Aspekte ihres körperlichen, geistigen, seelischen oder materiellen Wohlergehens einem Mann anvertraut, der Macht über sie hat.

 

  • Die meisten Frauen, die sich bemühten, die Gründe für ihre Teilnahme am Sex mit einem Therapeuten, Pfarrer oder Ausbilder zu erklären, nannten auch den kulturellen Einfluss in ihrer Erziehung, der sie dazu brachte, den sexuellen Wünschen von tonangebenden Männern nachzukommen. Sie waren der Meinung, dass das Gewicht dieser die Willfährigkeit begünstigenden verinnerlichten Botschaft in Verbindung mit ihrem inneren Bedürfnis, sich auf die außergewöhnliche Verheißung dieser Beziehung einzulassen, sie widerstandslos in eine psychologische Falle tappen lassen hat.

 

  • In der männlich dominierten Mythologie sollte eine Frau einem Mann in erster Linie Respekt erweisen. Selbst wenn sich der Respekt mit Liebe vermischt, schafft das Vorhandensein dieser Verhaltensvorschrift, die Frauen verinnerlicht haben, die Voraussetzung für ihre Ausbeutung.

 

Buchbesprechungen

 

  • Rutter erklärt, dass jeder sexuelle Austausch zwischen Therapeut und Klientin aufgrund der Art der Beziehung ein Vertrauensmissbrauch ist, da der Therapeut häufig den Status einer Elternfigur für den Klienten einnimmt. Damit kommt die sexuelle Ausbeutung dem Inzest gleich, und die Nachwirkung auf das Opfer kann ebenso verheerend sein. Buchbesprechung Sex in the Forbidden Zone – by Peter Rutter, and words on power in therapy [Machtverhältnisse in der Therapie], präsentiert von Amanda Williamson, Exeter, Devon, 15. Mai 2013

 

  • Peter Rutter erklärt, dass bei sexuellen Grenzverletzungen sowohl der Mann als auch die Frau ihre ihnen von Kultur und Elternhaus auferlegten seelischen Wunden ausagieren, die ihre jeweilige männliche und weibliche Identität beschädigt haben. Die Beschreibungen von männlichen und weiblichen Fantasien und zwischenmenschlichen Dynamiken in dem 1989 veröffentlichten Buch wirken eher heteronormativ. Frauen, deren Grenzen in der Kindheit überschritten wurden, können möglicherweise weniger gut zwischen Beziehungen mit Männern zu unterscheiden, in denen sexueller Austausch angemessen ist oder nicht; Männern kann es schwerfallen, zwischen ihren Frauenfantasien und der echten Frau, die vor ihnen sitzt, zu unterscheiden;
          ➤ Frauen werden kulturell geprägt, Männern gegenüber sexuell unterwürfig zu sein;
          ➤ Männer werden dazu erzogen, ihre Wunden zu verbergen und sich mithilfe von Sex davon zu heilen.
Buchbesprechung Book Review: Sex in the Forbidden Zone By Peter Rutter, präsentiert von der Publikation Unsafe Spaces, Phil Dore, 1. August 2015

 

Literatur: ► Dr. med. Peter Rutter, US-amerikanischer Jungscher Psychiater, Autor,
Verbotene Nähe, Econ, Taschenbuchauflage 1. Januar 1991
See also: ► Quotes on Sex in the forbidden zone – Peter Rutter

General quotes

Personal avowals

 

(↓)

Remark on his own legacy

  • I feel I'm regarded [by my psychiatric colleagues] as a brilliant man who is pretty disturbed. Documentary featuring Ronald D. Laing (1927-1989) British Scottish psychiatrist, author, presented by the British public-service television broadcaster Channel 4, 1989

 

(↓)

Famous psychiatrist neglects the children of his first family.

  • It was ironic that my father became well known as a family psychiatrist when in the meantime he had nothing to do with his first family. Me and my sisters and brother felt like the abandoned ones because Dad had a new, second family – out of sight, out of mind. But by the time I was a teenager, when my brother and I went to stay with him in 1973, I started to have a relationship with dad independent of my mother. Fundamentally, dad was about choice and consent and behaving in a way that is going to make your mind and life better and not postponing that by getting sidetracked into medication. But by the same token there was a very radical, wild side to him. By the 1980s, around the time of the final split of his second marriage, he did succumb to heavy drinking. And that, to me, was always the dividing line between what sort of dad I was going to encounter: the sober dad or the drunken, raging dad. When sober, he was on good form: articulate, calm and clear-minded. Adrian, R.D. Laing's son with his first wife, Anne, cited in: article RD Laing: Was the counterculture's favourite psychiatrist a dangerous renegade or a true visionary?, presented by the centre-left British online newspaper The Independent, Maureen Paton, 30. November 2015

Fifty years after Ronald David Laing set up his experimental mental-health facility – without locks or drugs – a play and a film aim to examine his legacy. Laing fathered a total of six sons and four daughters by four women.

 

(↓)

Futility of psychotherapy

The senior editor of PT described Dr. Eysenck as "one of the world's best-known and most respected psychologists."

  • I have argued in the past and quoted numerous experiments in support of these arguments, that there is little evidence for the practical efficacy of psychotherapy [...] the evidence on which these views are based is quite strong and is growing in strength every year. Hans Jürgen Eysenck, Ph.D. (1916-1997) German-British professor of psychology, University of London, researcher on intelligence and personality, Learning Theory and Behavior Therapy. In Behavior Therapy and the Neuroses, Pergamon Press, S. 4, 1960, reissued by the US American bimonthly magazine Psychology Today, S. 27, December 1988

 

Recommendations

  • If we treat people as they are, we make them worse.
    If we treat people as they ought to be, we help them become what they are capable of becoming.
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832) German polymath, poet, playwright, dramatist, novelist, novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, book VIII, chapter 4, Johann Friedrich Unger, Berlin, 1795-1796

 

  • Go back to where you started, or as far back as you can,
    examine all of it, travel your road again and tell the truth about it.
    Sing or shout or testify or keep it to yourself: but know whence you came.
    James Baldwin (1924-1987) US afroamerican social critic, playwright, essayist, short story writer, novelist, Go Tell It on the Mountain, Knopf, 18. May 1953

 

Critique on positive psychology

  • What the researchers don't help us to understand - and what will be essential to understand if we are ever to substantively broach human vitality – is how positivity ratios also appear to correlate with destructive human tendencies. For example, a growing body of research appears to suggest that what the researchers call high positivity – a disposition to pleasant, grateful, and upbeat feelings – is also correlative with a dimension called "positive illusion" (relative inaccuracy regarding reality); and that negativity (or what is generally characterized as mild to moderate depression) is correlated with relatively greater accuracy concerning reality. These findings, moreover, also appear to square with recent correlations between highly positive people and suppressed psychological growth, inability to self-reflect, and racial intolerance. Article by Kirk J. Schneider, Ph.D., US American leading spokesperson for contemporary existential-humanistic psychology, Toward a Humanistic Positive Psychology: Why Can't We Just Get Along? Why Positive Psychology should be a branch of Humanistic Psychology, 29. November 2010, excerpted from book Awakening to Awe. Personal Stories of Profound Transformation, Jason Aronson, 20. August 2009

 

  • Anyone who would go to a psychiatrist ought to have his head examined! Falsely attributed to Samuel Goldwyn (1879-1974) Polish-American film producer, founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood, reported in: Paul F. Boller, John George, They Never Said It, pg. 42, 1990
    A similar quote appears in the landmark book by Hollingshead and Redlich, Social Class and Mental Illness, pg. 237, 1958

 

Conclusions

 

  • My practice tells me I can no longer distinguish clearly between neurosis of self and neurosis of world, psychopathology of self and psychopathology of world. Moreover, it tells me that to place neurosis and psychopathology solely in personal reality is a delusional repression of what is actually, realistically, being experienced.
    Psychoanalysis has to get out of the consulting room and analyze all kinds of things.
    • You have to see that the buildings are anorexic,
    • you have to see that the language is schizogenic,
    • that "normalcy" is manic, and
    • medicine and business are paranoid. […]
      The whole world is sick […] .and you can’t put this right by having a good therapeutic dialogue or finding deeper meanings. It’s not about meaning anymore; it’s about survival.
      Psychological awareness rises from errors, coincidences, indefiniteness, from the chaos deeper than intelligent control.
      In any system, whether a corporation, a family or the inner arrangements of the human psyche, a vigorous "no" to the good of the whole may serve the good of the whole and increase its power even more than a compliant "yes."
      "Well, what can I do about the world? This thing's bigger than me." That’s the child archetype talking. "All I can do is go into myself, work on my growth, my development, find good parenting, support groups." This is a disaster for our political world, for our democracy. Democracy depends on intensely active citizens, not children.
      Psychoanalysis needs more dissidents, more even than Laing and the antipsychiatric movement; it needs its own "terrorists of soul" in the sense of a radical seeing through of its fixed investments in profession – its banks and insurance, its law courts, its palaces of bureaucracy – to return soul to the world.
      Today we need heroes of descent, not masters of denial, mentors of maturity who can carry sadness, who give love to aging, who show soul without irony or embarrassment. James Hillman (1926-2013) Jewish-European US-American archetypal Jungian psychologist, author, Michael Ventura, commentator, We've Had a Hundred Years of Psychotherapy – And the World's Getting Worse, HarperCollins, S. 93, 1992, cited in: In The Words of James Hillman, presented by Psyche's Hermetic Highwayman, undated

 

 

Insights

 

 


Character Uriah Heep appearing Charles Dickens' David Copperfield,
Fred Barnard (1846-1896) Victorian English genre painter, 1870s

 

  • The problem with psychoanalysis is that it purports to be able to cure people. This possibility I doubt very much. Freud was a doctor. So I guess he got paid to fix things and got carried away. But his view of the unconscious basis of decision making was essentially correct. We do not know how we decide things, and in a sense we don't really care. Roger Schank, US American psychologist, computer scientist, designer of E-Learning classes, author, cited in: article What Do You Believe Is True, presented by the nonprofit online magazine Edge, 2005

 

(↓)

Practicing of happiness by being in the flow

Watch also: Video presentation Thomas Jefferson's Practice of Happiness, presented by Optimal Living 101, YouTube film, 1:10 minutes duration, posted by Brian Johnson 24. November 2012

  • Eudaemonia, the good life, which is what Thomas Jefferson and Aristotle meant by the pursuit of happiness. They did not mean smiling a lot and giggling. Aristotle talks about the pleasures of contemplation and the pleasures of good conversation. Aristotle is not talking about raw feeling, about thrills, about orgasms. Aristotle is talking about what Mike Csikszentmihalyi works on, and that is, when one has a good conversation, when one contemplates well. When one is in eudaemonia, time stops. You feel completely at home. Self-consciousness is blocked. You're one with the music. Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, happiness researcher, educator, public speaker, author of self-help books, presented by Edge The Third Culture, presented by the nonprofit online magazine Edge, 23. March 2004

 

  • If the development of civilization has such a far-reaching similarity to the development of the individual and if it employs the same methods, may we not be justified in reaching the diagnosis that, under the influence of cultural urges, some civilizations. [...] possibly the whole of mankind, have become neurotic? Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis, deep psychologist, founder of psychoanalysis, critic of religion, author, source unknown

 

  • Most people tell you they want to get out of kindergarten, but don't believe them. Don't believe them! All they want you to do is to mend their broken toys.
    "Give me back my wife.
    Give me back my job.
    Give me back my money.
    Give me back my reputation, my success."
This is what they want; they want their toys replaced. That's all. Even the best psychologist will tell you that, that people don't really want to be cured. What they want is relief; a cure is painful. Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) Indian Catholic Jesuit priest, psychotherapist, spiritual leader, author, Awareness. The Perils and Opportunities of Reality, S. 5-6, Doubleday, New York, 1. June 1990, Image, reprint edition May 1. May 1992

 

  • People have to suffer enough emotionally before they are ready to wake up. And what I was doing as a psychotherapist was easing the suffering. People have to suffer enough in a relationship that they get disillusioned with all relationships [...] before they wake up and say: "I'm sick of it. There must be another way of living than depending on another human being."
    [...] Sometimes what I was doing as a phychotherapist was a help and sometimes – I'm sorry to say – it wasn't because it kept that sleep. [...]
    May be they ought to touch rock bottom. [...] It's only when you say that you are sick of your sickness that you get out of it. Most people go to a psychotherapist or a psychologist to get relief. Video lecture by Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) Indian Catholic Jesuit priest, psychotherapist, spiritual leader, author, Wake Up to Life! – Awareness – On psychology, presented by Tabor Publishing, 1986, YouTube film, minute 0:36, 7:34 minutes duration, posted 25. November 2008

 

  • In the office of the modern psychoanalyst, the stages of the hero-adventure come to light again in the dreams and hallucinations of the patient. Depth beyond depth of self-ignorance is fathomed, with the analyst in the role of the helper, an initiatory priest. And always [...] the adventure develops into a journey of darkness, horror, disgust, and phantasmagoric fears. Joseph Campbell, Ph.D. (1904-1987) US American mythologist, expert in comparative mythology and comparative religion, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, S. 121, Princeton University Press, 1949

 

(↓)

Projective identification

♦ A narcissist may project extremely powerful obliterating the distinction between self and other.
♦ Less disturbed personalities get rid of feelings and get help with them.
♦ An emotionally balanced person may use it as a bridge to empathy and intuitive understanding.

  • The one person does not use the other merely as a hook to hang projections on. He strives to find in the other, or to induce the other to become, the very embodiment of projection. Ronald D. Laing (1927-1989) British Scottish psychiatrist, Self and Others, S. 111, 1961, 1969, Penguin, 1. January 1995

 

(↓)

Assymmetry in social studies favoring a small significant slice of humanity

Culture deeply shapes human cognition.

 

(↓)

Ego defense – idealisation and idolisation:

  • An ego defense similar to splitting is idealisation. Like the positive end of splitting, idealization involves
    ➤ overestimating the positive attributes of a person, object, or idea while
    ➤ underestimating its negative attributes. More fundamentally,
    ➤ it involves the projection of our needs and desires onto that person, object, or idea.
A paradigm of idealization is infatuation, when love is confused with the need to love, and the idealized person’s negative attributes are glossed over or even imagined as positive. Although this can make for a rude awakening, there are few better ways of relieving our existential anxiety than by manufacturing something that is 'perfect' for us, be it a piece of equipment, a place, country, person, or god. Neel Burton, Ph.D. (*1978) British psychiatrist, philosopher, educator, writer, Hide and Seek. The Psychology of Self Deception, Acheron Press, 28. March 2012

 

  • The tipping point ratio is 3-to-1. We need three positive emotions to lift us up for every negative emotion that drags us down. Video presentation by Barbara Fredrickson, Ph.D. (*1964) US American Kenan distinguished professor of (positive) psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Positive Emotions, presented by UNCCH, YouTube film, 8:33 minutes duration, posted 26. January 2009

 

(↓)

Psychiatry ⇔ psychism

  • The underpinning of spirituality was there in medicine, but we have grown so far from that, medicine has become so mechanistic and linear and rational that we've lost touch with the visionary side and the spiritual side of medicine. […] Even now [~1996] in the DSM-III which is the Bible of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) with every diagnostic criteria known to man in it – anything psychic [Psychic abilities] is equated with psychosis, a symptom of mental disorder. And that's the only frame of reference that traditional psychiatry has to use to talk about it. So either as a symptom of mental disorder, or else alternatively, psychiatrists see it as a sham. Video interview (DVD excerpt) with Judith Orloff, M.D., Ph.D. DrJudithOrloff.com (*1951) US American assistant professor of psychiatry, UCLA, empath, dying companion, lecturer, author, Judith Orloff: Psychiatry and the Psychic (excerpt), episode #H260, presented by the weekly public television series Thinking Allowed (PBS) (1988-2002), host Jeffrey Mishlove, Ph.D., US American director of the Intuition Network, program dean of the University of Philosophical Research, TV host, ~1996, YouTube film, minutes 0:48 and 6:06, 6:39 minutes duration, posted 28. August 2010

 

(↓)

Skinner's behaviorism – Cultural/social engineering

  • "Dr. Skinner is the professor of psychology who is responsible for the invention of something known as 'the mechanical baby tender' […] But the menace of the mechanical baby tender is as nothing compared to the menace of books like Walden Two. For Dr. Skinner's utopia is a triumph of 'cultural engineering' and 'behavioral engineering' where the conditioned reflex is king […] Once they are trained, the inhabitants have 'freedom.' But it is the freedom of those Pavlovian dogs which are free to foam at the mouth whenever the 'dinner' bell invites them to a nonforthcoming meal […]"13 The title Beyond Freedom and Dignity must be taken literally. Skinner lets us know from the outset that he considers the value placed on our so-called freedom to shape our own lives, as well as the vaunted ideal of the dignity of the individual, to be outmoded notions whose time has past. […] He attacks them by insisting that a "technology of behavior" based on the principles of operant conditioning could produce a world as free from crime, unhappiness, and inefficiency as from our unfortunate overestimation of the worth of the individual and our common delusion that there actually is such a thing as freedom of the will.14 Assessment of life and work of B.F. Skinner, presented by Skewsme.com, Kevin Crosby, B.F. Skinner, May/30. June 2003 and Behavioral Conditioning, 4. December 2001, modified 8. August 2013

 

(↓)

Schizophrenia

  • Summarizing what schizophrenia is really all about the really prominent features are captured by the terms hyper-reflexivity and alienation. Hyper-reflexivity by that I mean a kind of self-consciousness. I don't just mean the self-consciousness of say an adolescent, but rather the schizophrenic self-consciousness is something much more disruptive of the normal spontaneous flow of experience and behavior. And it can also happen intellectually so that one becomes aware of one's own thinking. […] They can get very engaged in a process of watching their own mind. And they will sometimes almost feel that they can kind of see the cognitive operations going on inside their skull. Or they may just sort of think about thinking and they may begin to analyze themselves too much. It can be extremely alienating and debilitating for the person. […] So a scrutinizing self-consciousness that is not relaxed and able to just accept itself ends up leading to an experience of there being no self. Louis Sass, Ph.D., US American professor of clinical psychology, graduate school of applied and professional psychology, Rutgers University, expert in severe psychopathology, philosophy and psychology, author, cited in: Soul Searching, part 2 of 3, excerpted from documentary DVD, broadcasted by the British public-service television broadcaster Channel 4, YouTube film, minutes 1:56, 3:31, and 4:14, 10:24 minutes duration, posted 21. January 2010

 

Reference: en.Wikiquote entry Psychology and ► Psychoanalysis and ► Psychotherapy and ► Psychiatry
Dunning–Kruger effect = Self-awareness deficit of incompetents = Lack of "knowing thyself"
[Paraphrased summary] Incompetent ignorant Westerners (not Easterners or Resteners) cannot know they're incompetent or deny their lack of skill, experience and knowledge (incompetence).
Much incorrect self-assessment of competence of Americans is due to the ignorance of the standards of performance of an activity (such as reading comprehension, motor-vehicle operation, playing chess or tennis, practice of medicine). Justin Kruger and David Dunning's research on patterns of overestimation of competence at Cornell University (1999) indicated that incompetent Westerners will:
➤ fail to recognize their own lack of skill,
➤ fail to recognize the extent of their inadequacy,
➤ fail to accurately gauge skill in others,
➤ recognize and acknowledge their lack of skill only after being exposed to formal training in that skill.
➤ The skills needed to produce a solution coincide with the skills needed to recognize what a right answer is.

 

References: en.Wikipedia entries Dunning–Kruger effect
Cognitive dissonanceCurse of knowledgeFour stages of competenceGrandiose delusionsHanlon's razorHubrisOptimism biasOverconfidence effectSelf-deceptionSelf-serving biasSuperiority complexUltracrepidarianism

Satire

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APA's admission: Mind / consciousness research has failed.

The mind cannot possibly study itself.

  • We've spent years trying to discern how the mind functions, but today I am forced to admit that this so-called research was nothing more than a fool's errand – and that we people of learning were the greatest fools of all. […] Can the eye watch itself? Can a book read its own pages? No. It’s now clear to us that despite all the painstakingly conducted studies and all the data we have meticulously gathered since the late 19th century, we have, in essence, been nothing more than the snake that devours its own tail. […] All that we thought we understood was merely a mirage crafted by the very unfathomable minds we once so stubbornly insisted we could know. Nadine Kaslow, Ph.D., US American professor of psychology, department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, Emory University, president of the American Psychological Association (APA), editor of the peer-reviewed academic journal Journal of Family Psychology, fake press conference, 24. July 2014, cited in: article Psychology Comes To Halt As Weary Researchers Say The Mind Cannot Possibly Study Itself, presented by satirical "news" source The Onion, issue 50•30, 31. July 2014

Quotes on Sex in the forbidden zone – Peter Rutter

Peter Rutter M.D., US American psychiatrist affiliated with the C.G.Jung Institute, author, Sex in the Forbidden Zone. When Men in Power – Therapists, Doctors, Clergy, Teachers, and Others –
Betray Women's Trust
, 1989, Fawcett Crest, New York, 21. October 1991

 

  • Success itself puts a man at higher risk for feeling that he can make his own rules and that his word (or his fabrications) will be believed against the words of a woman who challenges him. In most of the case histories I gathered for this book, the man who had a sexual relationship in the forbidden zone had been considered an outstanding member of his profession.

 

  • How a woman is treated in relationships of trust can make the difference between whether she experiences her femininity as a force to be valued and respected or as a commodity to be exploited. S. 30

 

  • Imagine a man in this position – a doctor, lawyer, pastor, professor, or businessman – who has never been able to acknowledge his so-called feminine feelings. Indeed, he has been taught to be quite afraid of  them. He looks across the room to the woman with whom he has developed some professional intimacy. The reality of who she is becomes indistinguishable from the inner image of a woman that he carries with him. As fantasy and reality overlap, the man begins to project into her body and spirit the 'feminine' feeling potential and mystery that he has shut himself off from. He will be drawn to her for healing, for contact with what he hopes will be an unexpected new source of aliveness. S. 89

 

Article by Peter Rutter M.D., US American psychiatrist affiliated with the C.G.Jung Institute, author, Sex in the forbidden zone, presented by the international journal for pastors Ministry, January 1992

 

  • It took me nearly a decade to stop believing in the myth of the beneficent doctor. I was forced to acknowledge that a yearning for just such a forbidden episode existed within myself, and was shocked to discover that a psychiatrist who had been my mentor had for years engaged in sex with women patients. I have since discovered that sexual exploitation by men of women under their care or tutelage is actually quite common, and that a remarkably similar pattern of sexual contact is perpetrated not only by male doctors and therapists, but by male clergy, lawyers, teachers, and workplace mentors.

 

  • Sex in the forbidden zone – sexual behavior between a man and a woman under his care of mentorship in a professional relationship can occur any time a woman entrusts important aspects of her physical, spiritual, psychological, or material welfare to a man who has power over her.

 

  • Most of these women, in trying to account for the reasons they participated in sex with a therapist, pastor, or mentor, also cited cultural factors in their upbringing that steered them toward complying with the sexual desires of these powerful men. They felt that the force of this preexisting message that encourages compliance, when combined with their inner need to hold on to the extraordinary promise offered in the relationship, set up a psychological trap they were powerless to resist.

 

  • In masculine mythology, a woman, above all, should show deference to a man. Even mixed with love and respect, its presence as a value internalized by women sets the stage for exploitation.

 

  • The number of healthy relationships that emerge are minuscule. The damage is almost universal, and it is absolutely identical, whether the relationships take place within imported Eastern disciplines or Western psychotherapy. There's the same difference in power, the built-in admiration for the symbolic father, and the inability to displease him or see that he is damaging her. Peter Rutter, cited in: article Encountering the Shadow in Buddhist America, presented by the US American quarterly magazine Tricycle, Katy Butler, 1. August 2018

 

Book reviews

  • Rutter states that any sexual contact between a therapist and client is an abuse of position of trust because of the nature of the relationship, because the therapist often becomes a parental figure to the client. With this, the sexual exploitation is tantamount to incest, and the repercussions for the victim can be as devastating. Book review Sex in the Forbidden Zone – by Peter Rutter, and words on power in therapy, presented by Amanda Williamson, Exeter, Devon, 15. May 2013

 

  • [Peter Rutter] argues that in sexual boundary breaches, both the man and the woman are playing out wounds in their psyches – from culture and from parent figures – against their respective masculine and feminine identities. Given that the book is somewhat dated (published in 1989) it's perhaps unsurprising that his descriptions of male and female fantasies and interpersonal dynamics come across as rather heteronormative (women who have had their boundaries breached in childhood may be less able to distinguish between relationships with men where sexuality is appropriate and where it is not; men may have difficulty distinguishing between their fantasies of women and the actual woman sitting in front of him;
      ➤ women are encultured to be sexually deferent to men;
      ➤ men are encultured to hide their wounds and seek healing from them in sex).
Book Review: Sex in the Forbidden Zone By Peter Rutter, presented by the publication Unsafe Spaces, Phil Dore, 1. August 2015

 

Siehe auch: ► Zitate über Sex zwischen Therapeut und Klient – Peter Rutter

Englische Texte – English section on (Positive) Psychology

Correspondences of psychology

Psychological and alchemical correlations
Alchemical
operation
Psychology
Aspect
Psychology
Function
Purification
of
Needed
is
Conscious stateIntention
Aspiration
Negative qualities Positive qualities
CalcinationEgoThinking functionThoughtsFire
Solve
Materialistic, neuroticPenitence, maturity, planning, hope, integration Stubborn, slow, resigned, cold, fearful, phlegmatic Practical, patient, prudent
DissolutionIdSub-
conscious
Feeling function
FeelingsWater
Solve
Emotional blockages, nightmaresBeauty, friends, romance, pleasure Excessive, greedy, selfish love, limited view, melancholic Generous, sociable, optimistic
SeparationEssencesIntuitive functionWillAir
Solve
Mindful
Aware of opposites
Affluence, wealth, courage, power Cruel, violent, angry, controlling, willful, choleric Courageous, daring, initiating, determined
ConjunctionEssences unitedSensation functionBodyEarth
Conjunct
Blissful
In love
Enraptured
Fertility, marriage, homemaking Lustful, wanton, possessive, passionate, sanguine Sensitive, loving, kind, appreciative, cheerful
FermentationInspirationReligious fervorSoulSulfur
Coagula
Higher consciousness
Beyond physical desire
Wisdom, Intuition, Speech, Divine union Tricky, lying, sneaky, not connected to world Intelligent, hopeful, lively, imaginative
DistillationDivine
cons-
ciousness
True objectivitySpiritMercury
Coagula
Equanimity
One-pointedness
Point source of consciousness
Knowledge, journey to the other side, psychic powers Unemotional, detached, aloof Reflective, intuitive
CoagulationTrans-
personal
Self
God
The Stone
PresenceSalt
Coagula
Union with God, nirvana, satori, synchronicities, aware of non-selfSuccess, illumination, truly righteous, creative realization Arrogant, proud, over-confidentGenuinely confident, authentic, whole
Source: ► Article III. Correspondences of Psychology, presented by Alchemylab.com, issuing date unknown
See also: ► Hermes Trismegistos

Classic psychology experiments

List of important psychology studies and experiments effective in
conditioning and changing the general outlook on human behavior
'''
Note: Resilience ratio – two thirds ⇔ one third
༺༻ExperimentLegendExperimentorLocation
Time frame
1.Pavlov's Classical Conditioning Experiments
with dogs
Revealing the concept of classical conditioningIvan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian physiologist, Nobel Prize winner, 1904Published
in 1927
2.The Asch Conformity Experiments15 Revealing two thirds of conformity levels to which people follow or rebel ( one third ) against social norms.
–––––––––––––––––––––
See also: Confirmatory bias or myside bias Overconfidence or presumptuousness in personal beliefs, internal "yes man", Self-fulfilling prophecy
Solomon Asch (1907-1996) US American Gestalt psychologist, pioneer in social psychologyDuring the 1950s
3.Harlow's Rhesus Monkey Experiments Revealing the science of love and the nature of affection, demonstrating devastating effects of deprivation on young rhesus monkeys in an unethical and shockingly cruel way, outlining the importance of love for healthy childhood development.Harry Harlow (1905-1981)
US American psychologist, known for his maternal-separation and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys
University of Wisconsin-Madison
during the 1960s
4.The Milgram Obedience Experiment Participants delivered electrical shocks by order to a fake "learner" after an incorrect answers were given. To demonstrate the degree of willingness to obey commands of an authority figure; 65% = two thirds of the testees delivered the maximum level of shocks despite serious distress signs by the learners.Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) US American social psychologistNew Haven
in 1961
5.The Stanford Prison Experiment16 Simulation experiment with students in the roles of prisoners and prison guards. The experiment was to last for two weeks. After six days it was halted due to abusiveness of guard testees who put prisoner testees under extreme stress and anxiety.Philip G. Zimbardo (*1933) US American professor emeritus in psychologyStanford University
in 1971
6.Stanford Marshmallow Experiment17 Revealing deferred gratification
In over 600 children a minority ate the marshmallow immediately.
One third deferred gratification long enough to get the second marshmallow.
Walter Mischel (1930-2018) US American professor of psychology specializing in personality theory and social psychologyColumbia University
in 1972
7.Learned helplessness experiment18 Conditioned dogs, repeatedly and inescapably hurt by an adverse stimulus, did not behave like outlined by B.F. Skinner's behaviorism. The animals reverted to stoical utter helplessness.
Caution: In 2001 Learned Helplessness became the basis of the CIA's torture program.19
Martin Seligman (*1942) US American professor of psychology, happiness researcher, educator, public speaker, author of self-help booksUniversity of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, 1967/1975
8.Libet experiment – Neuroscience of free will Preceded by Bereitschaftspotential [readiness potential], discovered by Lüder Deecke and Hans Helmut Kornhuber in 1964Benjamin Libet (1916-2007)
US American physiologist, pioneering human consciousness researcher
University of California, San Francisco, 1979
Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Classical conditioning
Reference: ► Article Why We Do Dumb or Irrational Things: 10 Brilliant Social Psychology Experiments,
presented by PsyBlog, 13. November 2007
See also:
Pygmalion effect – Average people may perform at genius level.
Moral corruption by the power of controlling others – Lord of the Flies effect
Cognitive dissonance
Siehe auch: ► Klassische psychologische Experimente

Social psychology experiments

List of social psychology studies
༺༻ExperimentLegend
1.Halo effectMystery of the human mind
2.Cognitive dissonanceHumans lying to themselves
3.Robbers cave experiment by Mazaer SherifWar, peace and the role of power
4.Stanford prison experiment20Dark hearts
5.Obedience experiment by Stanley MilgramFollowing orders
6.False consensus biasReasons why humans stink as intuitive psychologists
7.Social identity theoryReasons why groups and prejudices form so easily
8.Don't threatenAvoiding bad bargains
9.Bystander apathyReasons why humans don't help others
10.Conforming to the normDeceived by one's eyes
Source: ► Article Why we do dumb or irrational things: 10 brilliant social psychology studies,
presented by PsyBlog, Jeremy Dean, reissued by Sott.net, 11. November 2013

Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is a human condition of the disparity between external cues and internally held beliefs mainly defined in the mental field.
Cognitive dissonance is "a state of psychic tension caused by the simultaneous holding of mutually inconsistent attitudes or the existence of a lack of consonance between attitudes and behavior" (Sears et. al., 1985) and
"feelings of tension that arise when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions." (Myers, 1987)
Spiritual dissonance is experienced in the body as a sense of "wrongness," loss, or depletion.

 

Cognitive dissonance and self-justification when faced with one's errors and fallible nature
ChapterChapter headingLegend
1Cognitive dissonance21
The engine of self-justification
Holding contradictions creates anxiety. People 'resolve' this conflict by
"inventing a comfortable illusion"; Confirmation bias explained
Example of denial: Jean-Claude Duvalier [Baby Doc]22
2Prideprejudice·and·blind·spots Cognitive dissonance and prejudice;
the desire to regard oneself as good may thwart one's reality check.
3Memory,
the self-justifying historian
Implications of the flawed human memory which does not record like a video camera
4Good intentions, bad science
Closed·loop·of·clinical·judgment
Evidence disproving one's assumption or viewpoint, not just the evidence that supports it. "Kill Buddha."
Example of collegial rejection of scientific evidence: Ignaz Semmelweis23
5Law and disorder The US justice system, slippery slope of police falsifying evidence, improper interrogation techniques, false confessions, prosecutorial biases
6Love's assassin
Self-justification in marriage
Overcoming the tendency of ruining marriage by self-justification
emerged from cognitive dissonance.
7Wounds, rifts, and wars Escalation and hardening of disagreements
Solving national and interpersonal conflicts
8Letting go and owning up To be wrong does not equal stupid.
Though momentarily painful, it is beneficial to admit "I was wrong."
Example of public admission of mistake: Alan Greenspan, October 200824
Sources featuring Carol Tavris, Ph.D. (*1944) US American social psychologist, author, Elliot Aronson (*1932) US American psychologist, author
Book: Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me). Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts, Mariner Books,
    reprint edition March 2008
Audio interview Carol Tavris on Mistakes and Skeptics, episode #55, presented by the US American web radio station
    Skeptiko Science at the tipping point, host Alex Tsakiris, 50:12 minutes duration, 23 MB, aired 14. October 2008
Audio interview Mistakes Were Made, presented by the US American radio show For Good Reason, in association with the skeptic
    James Randi Association, host D.J. Grothe (*1973) US American speaker, writer, YouTube film, 57:43 minutes duration,
    posted 30. December 2011
Video interview Interview with Carol Tavris, presented by the Action Studies Institute, host, founder and director Ken Low, recording and
    editing by Hidden Story Productions, Vimeo film, 1:05:47, posted 14. June 2013
Further written references:
Book Shankar Vedantam, Indian US American science correspondent for the non-commercial US American media organization
    National Public Radio (NPR), The Hidden Brain. How Our Unconscious Minds Elect Presidents, Control Markets, Wage Wars,
    and Save Our Lives
, Spiegel & Grau, 19. January 2010
Article Cognitive Dissonance: A Spiritual Perspective, presented by Mediate, Barbara Stuart, date unknown
Blog article Cognitive bias cheat sheet. Because thinking is hard., presented by the blogspot Better Humans, Buster Benson,
    1. September 2016
1. We don't see everything.
2. Our search for meaning can conjure illusions.
3. Quick decisions can be seriously flawed.
4. Our memory reinforces errors.

Article The Cognitive Biases Tricking Your Brain. Science suggests we're hardwired to delude ourselves., presented by the
     US American magazine The Atlantic, Ben Yagoda, September 2018
See also:
Classic psychology experiments
Pygmalion effect – Average people may perform at genius level.
Moral corruption by the power of controlling others – Lord of the Flies effect
Plato's allegory of the cave
Listing cognitive biases
Error

 

  • Cognitive dissonance is the unconscious mental conflict that occurs when two attitudes, or an attitude and a behavior, or an attitude and new information, conflict with one another: "Smoking could kill me" and "smoke" is an example. Being in a state of dissonance is as unsettling, and as motivating, as hunger, and, like hunger, we seek to reduce the discomfort. The smoker will either have to quit – or justify smoking. Interview with Carol Tavris, Ph.D. (*1944) US American social psychologist, author, Elliot Aronson (*1932) US American psychologist, author, Interview on August 30, 2007 with Carol Tavris and Elliot, presented by The Whitman Institute, hosts John Esterle and Dan Clurman, 30. August 2007

 

  • Times of transitions are particularly difficult times. Paradigm shifts are painful. It is painful, for example, to overcome loss aversion or leave behind just world thinking. It is very hard for people who believe themselves to be good people (and that includes just about everybody) to accept that they have harmed themselves and others, even unintentionally. Both shame and humiliation are thorny issues; many choose self-justification instead of admitting to change.3425 Cognitive dissonance is one of the causes for discomfort when there is discrepancy between what we know or believe and new information or interpretations. Traditional elites who feel entitled to supremacy resent being labeled oppressors, violently repressing shame when they lose superiority, while underlings are caught between self-disparaging shame and angry projections. Evelin Gerda Lindner, Ph.D., M.D. humiliationstudies.org (*1954) German physician, psychologist, transdisciplinary scholar in social sciences and humanities, human dignity researcher, founding president of the "Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies" (HumanDHS) Gender, Humiliation, and Global Security. Dignifying Relationships from Love, Sex, and Parenthood to World Affairs, chapter 5 "Humiliation Addiction: How Dangerous It Is", S. 70, Praeger, 26. February 2010

 

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Spiritual dissonance

self and not-self clashing

  • Spiritual dissonance is what occurs where our inner world meets our outer world; where what we think is true butts up against what appears to be true; where internal belief collides with external reality. It’s the discomfort that occurs where self and not-self come into contact.
    Ego is like a thin sheath of atmosphere between the earth of self and the infinite space of not-self, holding one in and the other out. We live out our lives in this narrow band, never digging too far down or testing our upper limits.This is where our emotional energy is spent, pumped into this gap between two incompatible surfaces, keeping them from grinding against each other and jolting us out of our slumber.
    That grinding, when it does occur, is spiritual dissonance.
    The egoic wall has no independent reality. When we stop pumping energy into it, it starts dissolving. That's what ego is, a segregated state, and that's the use to which we put our emotional energy. The egoic shell in which we dwell is of our own making, like a force field that requires a constant source of emotional energy. Jed McKenna, US American publisher of spiritual literature, author, Spiritual Warfare. Book Three of The Enlightenment Trilogy, S. 163, Wisefool Press, 2010

 

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Picture message

Facebook written picture post

  • Sometimes people hold a core belief that is very strong. When they are presented with evidence that works against that belief, the new evidence cannot be accepted. It would create a feeling that is extremely uncomfortable, called cognitive dissonance. And because it is so important to protect the core belief, they will rationalize, ignore and even deny anything that doesn't fit in with the core belief. Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) Martinique-born Afro-French psychiatrist, philosopher, political radical, existentialist humanist, revolutionary, writer on post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism, Black Skin, White Masks, Éditions du Seuil, France, 1952, Grove Press, New York, 1967

 

  • The individual is handicapped by coming face-to-face with a conspiracy so monstrous he cannot believe it exists. The American mind simply has not come to a realization of the evil which has been introduced into our midst. It rejects even the assumption that human creatures could espouse a philosophy which must ultimately destroy all that is good and decent. J. Edgar Hoover (1895-1972) US American first director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States (1924-1972), 33rd° Freemason, presented by The Elks Magazine, August 1956

 

  • The phenomenon – known as "backfire" – is a natural defense mechanism to avoid that cognitive dissonance. In the presence of the correct information, such people react very differently than the merely uninformed. Instead of changing their minds to reflect the correct information, they can entrench themselves even deeper. Brendan Nyhan, Ph.D. (*1978) US American political scientist, department of government, Dartmouth College, lead researcher on study at University of Michigan, 2005-2006, cited in: Article How facts backfireResearchers discover a surprising threat to democracy: our brains, presented by the US American daily newspaper The Boston Globe, Joe Keohane, 11. July 2010
    Misinformed people, particularly political partisans, when exposed to corrected facts in news stories, rarely change their minds. Often they become even more strongly set in their beliefs. Not curing misinformation, facts can actually make the belief in misinformation even stronger.


Listing cognitive biases

58 cognitive biases
༺༻          Bias I                    Bias II                    Bias III          
1.Affect heuristicAnchoring biasConfirmation bias
2.Observer-expectancy effectBandwagon effectBias blind spots
3.Choice-supportive biasClustering illusionConservatism bias
4.ConformityCurse of knowledgeDecoy effect
5.Denomination effectDuration neglectAvailability heuristic
6.Empathy gapFrequency illusionFundamental attribution error
7.Galatea effectHalo effectHard-Easy bias
8.HerdingHindsight biasHyperbolic discounting
9.Ideometer effectIllusion of controlInformation bias
10.Inter-group biasIrrational escalationNegativity bias
11.Omission biasOstrich effectOutcome bias
12.OverconfidenceOveroptimismPessimism bias
13.Placebo effectPlanning fallacyPost-purchase rationalization
14.PrimingPro-innovation biasProcrastination
15.ReactanceRecencyReciprocity
16.Regression biasRestraint biasSalience
17.Scope insensitivitySeersucker illusionSelective perception
18.Self-enhancing transmission biasStatus quo biasStereotyping
19.Survivorship biasTragedy of the commonsUnit bias
20.Zero-risk bias  
Source: ► Article 58 Cognitive Biases that Screw up Everything We Do, presented by the German-owned American business,
celebrity and technology news website Business Insider, Drake Baer and Gus Lubinjun, 18. January 2014
Written references:
► Article The Cognitive Biases Tricking Your Brain. Science suggests we're hardwired to delude ourselves., presented by the
     US American magazine The Atlantic, Ben Yagoda, September 2010
► Article Here are 24 cognitive biases that are warping your perception of reality, presented by the publication of the Swiss nonprofit
     foundation World Economic Forum, Jeff Desjardins, 6. December 2018
► Infographic Every Single Cognitive Bias in One Infographic, presented by the Visual Capitalist, Jeff Desjardins, 25. September 2017
See also:
Cognitive dissonance
Classic psychology experiments
Pygmalion effect – Average people may perform at genius level.
Ten fallacies counter to rational debate
Lord of the Flies effect – Moral corruption by the power of controlling others

Resilience ratio: Two thirds unconscious ⇔ one third awakening

The Austrian psychotherapist and Nazi concentration camp survivor Viktor Frankl found meaning in his intense suffering. The spiritual / soul life strengthened the camp prisoners, helped them adapt, and so improved their chances of survival. It was a matter of the attitude of the prisoners who had a better chance to survive camp.

 

Psychoanalyst, child psychologist, and Nazi concentration camp survivor Bruno Bettelheim (1903-1990) found the sociological tripartition formula applicable to those who are faced with an extreme crisis in life. He published his findings in his book The Informed Heart. Autonomy in a Mass Age in 1979:

  1. One third of the people deported to the camps died during the transport – out of fear to starve.
  2. The other third died in the camp when food was short, life was hard-hard, and trust was low.
  3. The last third had a chance to survive as they kept trusting in an inviolable instance within themselves.

 

Bread and games keep the masses going.
When survival and play are jeopardized TRUST into the unknown becomes an essential asset.

 

Three kinds of reaction patterns when faced with traumatic conditions
Tripartition"Bread and games" metaphorReactionBehaviorExemplified by death camp survivors
1st third Without BREAD they are incapable to ...!They cannot. Giving·up One third of the Jews and Sinti who were deported into Nazi death camps died during the transportation out of fear and the uncertain prospect of living in a death camp.
2nd third Without GAMES that ordinary people play they are unwilling to ...!They don't want to. Drying·up The second third died during the death camp imprisonment, because conditions there were unbearable for them.
3rd third With hardly any BREAD and GAMES they ENDURE the hardship.
___________________
TRUST in what is happening despite the hardship is the trump that lets people survive amidst the hardest circumstances.
They endure the situation patiently and trustingly.
___________________
When the Tipping Point is reached, Transformation is at hand.
Keeping·it·up The last third was released in miraculous ways or else it survived the tortures of personal disempowerment until they were freed by Allied troups. Those who were free men again owe this to the power of their mind and soul, their unswerving trust in their destiny and their physical discipline.

 

(↓)

Note:

These recommentations conincide with the lower and middle rungs of the pyramid of needs created by the US American psychologist Abraham Maslow.

Austrian-born author Bruno Bettelheim suggested:

  1. Eat/drink what's available.
  2. Excrement regularly.
  3. Stay up and present.
  4. Read whatever you can read.
  5. Try to communicate under adverse conditions.

 

(↓)

Three kinds of people:
༺♥༻ Immovables
༺♥༻ Movables
༺♥༻ Moving ones

All mankind is divided into three classes:
  1. Those that are immovable,
  2. those that are movable,
  3. and those that move.
Attributed by Benjamin Franklin [The First American, Founding Father] (1706-1705) US American statesman, political theorist, occultist, polymath, diplomat, civic activist, author

 

Note:
♦◊♦ The Greek philosopher Socrates lived by the guidance of his inner voice (daemon). A two thirds majority of the committee in Athens sentenced him to death (by hemlock poison) in 399 BC.
♦◊♦ Two thirds of the US Americans favor prosperity over fairness [social justice]. [Status 2011]
♦◊♦ The apocalyptic Revelation (last book of the New Testament) refers to the 2/3 ⇔ 1/3 ratio:
Two thirds of mankind will perish whereas a third of mankind will rise after having endured the shortened "tribulation" period.

 

Note:         Controversial status of Bruno Bettelheim         
A spirit adverse Freudian, Bettelheim had survived the Nazi death camps in Buchenwald and Dachau. At the end of his career, at age 86, he committed suicide. His death wish, he explained as such: "The problem is finding a reason to live." It became painfully apparent that his writings and his actions were not congruent in the long run.26

Former students accused Bettelheim in print of ➤ having created an atmosphere of terror in his famous school, ➤ emotional and physical brutality and sexual abuse. Scholars accused him of ➤ plagiarism, and stories of falsified credentials (falsified curriculum vitae) and ➤ shoddy research. Bettelheim ➤ invented accomplishments, ➤ academic degrees, ➤ connections with people in high places [such as Sigmund Freud, Eleanor Roosevelt], and ➤ professional training and experience that either had no basis in reality or else were gross exaggerations. His repeated attacks of mothers of disturbed children were nourished by a culture pervaded by blind faith in a simplistic Freudianism and a wish to find easy answers. What allowed the perpetuation of the Bettelheim myth, was hero worship.27

 

References / critical biographies:
Nina Sutton, British-French journalist, author, Bettelheim. A Life and a Legacy, Basic Books, 1996, 2nd edition 20. July 1997
Richard Pollak, The Creation of Dr. B. A Biography of Bruno Bettelheim, Simon & Schuster, 1997, Touchstone, 6. April 1998
Definitive exposure of Bettelheim as a charlatan whose life was based on falsehood and self-aggrandizement
See also:
Classic psychology experiments
Solomon Ash (1950s) and Stanley Milgram (1961) found that two thirds of the subject were conforming with authority whereas one third of the test persons
refused to take non-ethical orders from authority. They carried out the dictum of their inner value structure.

Progression of addiction
Two thirds remain in addiction mode, one third endures the sobering relearning process.
See also: ► Sociology and ► Consciousness-Tables and ► Bread ♦ games ♦ endurance – when exposed to extreme conditions
Siehe auch: ► Krebsheilung – Zwei Drittel ⇔ Ein Drittel-Verhältnis [Healing of cancer – Ratio of two thirds ⇔ one third]

Characteristics of and myths about introverts

Behavioral patterns of introverts
༺༻Characteristics of introverts
1.You find small talk incredibly cumbersome.
2.You go to parties – but not to meet people.
3.You often feel alone in a crowd.
4.Networking makes you feel like a phony.
5.You've been called "too intense."
6.You're easily distracted.
7.Downtime doesn't feel unproductive to you.
8.Giving a talk in front of 500 people is less stressful than having to mingle with those people afterwards.
9.When you get on the subway, you sit at the end of the bench – not in the middle.
10.You start to shut down after you’ve been active for too long.
11.You're in a relationship with an extrovert.
12.You'd rather be an expert at one thing than try to do everything.
13.You actively avoid any shows that might involve audience participation.
14.You screen all your calls – even from friends.
15.You notice details that others don't.
16.You have a constantly running inner monologue.
17.You have low blood pressure.
18.You've been called an "old soul" since your 20s.
19.You don't feel "high" from your surroundings.
20.You look at the big picture.
21.You've been told to "come out of your shell."
22.You're a writer.
23.You alternate between phases of work and solitude, and periods of social activity.
Source: ► Article 23 Signs You're Secretly An Introvert, presented by the US American
liberal-oriented online newspaper The Huffington Post, Carolyn Gregoire, 20. August 2013
Literature:
► Sophia Dembling, US American introvert, author, The Introvert's Way. Living a Quiet Life in a Noisy World, Perigee Trade,
     4. December 2012
Susan Cain (*1968) US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, author, Quiet. The Power of
     Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking
, Crown Publishing Group, 24. January 2012, Broadway Books, 29. January 2013
Articles:
6 Illustrations That Show What It’s Like in an Introvert’s Head, presented by quietrev.com, Liz Fosslien and Mollie West, February 2016
‘Introvert or Extrovert’ Is the Wrong Way to Define Your Identity, presented by Science of US, Drake Baer, 27. October 2016
10 Reasons Why Introverts Make The Best Partners, presented by Archetypes, 2015
1. Faithfulness, 2. Great listeners, 3. Freedom, 4. Thoughtfulness, 5. Honesty, 6. Great communication,
7. Choices, 8. Intimacy, 9. Seeing the other side of life, 10. Unterstanding the mystery of life

 

⚠ NOTE: In 2010 the American Psychiatric Association considered classifying "introverted personality" as a disorder by listing it in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), used to diagnose mental illness, published on 18. May 2013.

 

Untrue widespread beliefs on introverts
༺༻Myths about introverts
Myth #1Introverts don’t like to talk.
Myth #2Introverts are shy.
Myth #3Introverts are rude.
Myth #4Introverts don’t like people.
Myth #5Introverts don’t like to go out in public.
Myth #6Introverts always want to be alone.
Myth #7Introverts are weird.
Myth #8Introverts are aloof nerds.
Myth #9Introverts don’t know how to relax and have fun.
Myth #10Introverts can fix themselves and become extroverts.
Source: ► Blog article by Ann Hoy 10 Myths About Introverts – blog post by Eli Bishop [July 2011], 13. September 2013

 

(↓)

A third of the world's population are introverts.

Following their calling allows them to step out.

  • Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, Gandhi – all these people described themselves as quiet and soft-spoken and even shy. And they all took the spotlight, even though every bone in their bodies was telling them not to. Video presentation by Susan Cain (*1968) US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, lecturer, author of Quiet, The power of introverts [Die Macht der Introvertierten], transcript, presented by TED Talks 2012, minute 6:54, 19:04 minutes duration, filmed February 2012, posted March 2012

Extroverts • ambiverts • introverts

Characteristics of extroverts, ambiverts and introverts
༺༻ExtrovertAmbivertIntrovert
1. Excited and energized by social situations Wonder often whether they need alone time
or external stimulation
Alone time is the way to recharge
2. Initiate and engage in conversations Can be quiet during a conversation
and share what they are passionate about
Use their eyes and ears more
than their mouths
3. Can talk about anything with anyone Find small talks insincere, sometimes Dislike small talks
4. Don't mind others paying
full attention to them
In the right context not shy of attention,
often prefer standing at the sidelines
Prefer standing away from the spotlight
5. Not unsettled by meeting new people Fine with talking to new people,
prefer to talk with their friends
Are quite uncomfortable to meet new friends
6. Talk the most Are a mix of extroverted and introverted tendencies Prefer thinking over speaking
Written sources:
► Article Introvert or Extrovert? Everything You Need to Know About Them, presented by Lifehack, Chloe Chong, ~2014
► Blog article Introvert, Extrovert, Ambivert Positives Denken Why Should You Care?, presented by Thomson Reuters, Jean Rakich, 7. September 2017
Reference: ► Blog article Carl Jung on the misinterpretation by Americans of "Introvert" and "Extrovert.",
presented by Carl Jung Depth Psychology, Lewis Lafontaine, 13. May 2014

 

 

"There is, finally, a third group […] the most numerous and includes the less differentiated normal man […]. He constitutes the extensive middle group […]. I call the first group extraverted and the second group introverted." Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a
new school of depth psychology, author, R.F.C. Hull, editor, H. G. Baynes, translator, Psychological Types (The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 6), S. 516, Princeton University Press, 2nd edition 1971, 1. October 1976

"My whole scheme of typology is merely a sort of orientation […]. For instance, the tendency to
be influenced by environmental influences [extraversion], or more influenced by subjective fact [introversion] – that's all."
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a
new school of depth psychology, author, cited in: Richard I. Evans, Jung on Elementary Psychology. A Discussion Between C.G. Jung and Richard I. Evans, S. 96-97, Routledge, 1st edition 11. October 1979

Extroverted and introverted nations

Despite their reputations, English people are just as extrovert as Americans.

"In contrast to personality traits – which reflect actual differences in the way people think, feel and behave – stereotypes about national character seem to be social constructions designed to serve specific societal purposes." Richard W. Robins, US American personality psychologist, UC Davis, California, 2005

 

"An isolated population is likely to become more introverted and inward focused through the generations as bolder individuals are more likely to choose to emigrate. […] Living in a crowded environment leads us to adopt a more future-oriented mindset, such as investing more in long-term relationships."

 

  • Most extroverted peoples: Brazilians, French Swiss and Maltese
  • Most introverted peoples: Nigerians, Moroccans and Indonesians.
  • Most emotionally stable peoples: Kongo people and Slovenians
  • Most emotionally insecure (neurotic) peoples: Japanese and Argentinians
  • Most agreeable peoples: Kongo people and Jordanese
  • Least agreeable peoples: Japanese and Lithuanians
  • Most conscientious peoples: Africans in general
  • Least conscientious peoples: East Asians in general

 

Source: ► Article Different nationalities really have different personalities, presented by the
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) publication BBC Future, Christian Jarrett, 13. April 2017

Optimists ⇔ pessimists

Optimists tend to be more stress-hardy, more happy, draw less illnesses and live longer.
Pessimists tend to be much less happy, draw more illnesses and die earlier.

 

The founder of Positive psychology Dr. Martin Seligman distinguishes
pessimism and optimism by differentiating the attributional styles of people.
Selfabsorbed pessimists
take life's challenges [job loss, disease, divorce] as a
personal, pervasive, permanent threat (the 3 Ps).
Realistic optimists
take life's challenges more stress hardy
by seeing them as possibilities for change for the better.
They take difficult situations in life as personal.They see things realistically as a challenge for ingenuity and change.
They see problems as pervasive.They keep a sense of sovereignity – in areas where they (still) have it.
They see their problems as permanent.
"It is never going to change."]
They have a commitment to a world view that expands possibilities.
See also: ► Possibility

 

Both optimists and pessimists contribute to society. The optimist invents the aeroplane, the pessimist the parachute. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) Irish politician, pacifist, satirist, dramatist, Nobel laureate in literature, 1925, unsourced

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Personal avowal

(↓)

Proper treatment of ADHD symptoms

  • When I was fourteen I was a very violent kid for most of my life. […] They [doctors, school] wanted to drug me. My mother – instead of drugging me – she got a man about 40 years old, a lavender farmer, to come and hang out with me once a week. Suddenly I kind of stopped being violent, I started plateauing.
It wasn't the fact that I had something wrong, or a chemical imbalance, that could be corrected with a drug. It was that I didn't have my dad around or any positive role model in order to learn how to be a proper, good, decent man. I saw those symptoms [written on the ADHD pamphlet] again on a slideshow presentation that I was being shown at university. And those symptoms were describing an entrepreneur. Video interview with Mellen-Thomas Benedict, most researched US American near-death experiencer, inventor, Life In A Prison and Near Death Experiences Mellen Thomas Benedict, presented by the New Zealand online radio show The Vinny Eastwood Show, host Vinny Eastwood (*1984), YouTube film, minute 53:27, 1:30:27 duration, recorded 21. February 2013, posted 10. October 2014

 

         Taming wild young elephants with ear flapping elders         

 

Young bull elephants [in Africa] were acting strangely out of character – antisocial and aimlessly vio­lent; they were stomping on VWs, pushing over trees for no reason, and even killing other small animals and baby elephants. [*]

African elephant with ears spread in a threat or attentive position
Park rangers came in to study the problem [...] they discovered that there were no older bull elephants in that area. By some accident, all the older bulls had either died or been poached for their ivory, which left the teenage males to roam and forage out of control.

 

Their solution?28

 

They brought in some older bulls from other areas by helicopter, lowered them onto the scene, and in a mat­ter of weeks, amazingly, the whole situation had changed. Apparently, all the old bulls did was wave their ears and make various sounds or small charges, and somehow the younger male elephants understood through these com­munications that their behavior was not exactly the way growing up elephant boys should act. It seemed to be just that simple. Things soon returned to normal once the elders operated as elders.

 

[*] The violent acting out of young elephant bulls is due to the so called musth.

Source: ► Father Richard Rohr O.F.M. (*1943) US American Franciscan friar, author, Adam's Return.
The Five Promises of Male Initiation
, Crossroad Publishing Company, 2. November 2004
Literature: ► Warren Farrell Farrell.com (*1943) US American political scientist, author, spokesman of men's liberation, men's rights activist, former director of the National Organisation for Women, speaker, author, John Gray (*1951) US American relationship counselor, lecturer, author, The Boy Crisis. Why Our Boys Are Struggling and What We Can Do About It, BenBella Books, 29. March 2018
See also:
Violence and ► Stories and ► Fairy tales and ► Men and ► Health
Men's health within the domination system
Siehe auch: ► Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS)
(↓)

Early childhood experiences to the development of the brain

Minute 14:22: ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: 1. (General) Poor impulse control, 2. Physical hyperactivity 3. Poor attention skills

 


Zappelphilip syndrome

 

  • The stress quotient is increasing on parents. Video interview with Gabor Maté, M.D. drgabormate.com (*1944) Hungarian-Canadian physician, addiction expert, speaker, author, Parental Stress and Its Impact on Kids, sponsored by the KMT Child Development and Community conference, Toronto, presented by TVOparents.com, host Cheryl Jackson, YouTube film, minute 7:44, 13:26 minutes duration, posted by tvoparents 25. May 2012

 

(↓)

Early childhood experiences to the development of the brain:

ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: 1. (General) poor impulse control, 2. Physical hyperactivity 3. Poor attention skills

  • The conditions in which children develop have been so corrupted and troubled [in post-industrial capitalism] over the last several decades that the template for normal childhood development is no longer present. Video interview with Gabor Maté, M.D. drgabormate.com (*1944) Hungarian-Canadian physician, addiction expert, speaker, author, Stress-Disease Connection, Addiction and the Destruction of American Childhood, presented by the US American Democracy Now!, US American non-profit TV station, host Amy Goodman (*1957) US American broadcast journalist, syndicated columnist, investigative reporter, author, minute 14:22, 59:05 minutes duration, aired (Feb 2010-Jun 2011) 25. December 2012

 

(↓)

ADHD is suffering from childhood within a conformist patriarchy.

  • Children are not, for the most part, suffering from psychological conditions [like ADHD]. They are suffering from childhood. Kids prosper best with a broad curriculum that celebrates their various talents, not just a small range of them. Video presentation by Sir Ken Robinson (*1950) British professor of arts education, University of Warwick (1989-2001), director of The Arts in Schools Project (1985-1989), international advisor on education, speaker, author, How to escape education's death valley, presented by TED Talks Education, New York City, minute 5:41, 19:11 minutes duration, filmed April 2013, posted May 2013

 

(↓)

Seven months before his death at age 87 Russian Jewish American psychiatrist and "scientific father of ADHD" Leon Eisenberg confessed in his last interview.

 


Blooming lavender
  • When men share housework and childcare,
    ➤ their children do better in school.
    ➤ Their children have lower rates of absenteeism,
    ➤ higher rates of achievement.
    ➤ They are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.
    ➤ They are less likely to see a child psychiatrist.
    ➤ They are less likely to be put on medication.
    ➤ their children are happier and healthier, and men want this.
    ➤ Their wives are happier. Duh.
    ➤ Not only that, their wives are healthier.
    ➤ Their wives are less likely to see a therapist, less likely to be diagnosed with depression,
    ➤ less likely to be put on medication, more likely to go to the gym,
    ➤ report higher levels of marital satisfaction.
    ➤ their wives are happier and healthier, and men certainly want this as well.
    ➤ the men are healthier.
    ➤ They smoke less, drink less, take recreational drugs less often.
    ➤ They are less likely to go to the ER but more like to go to a doctor for routine screenings.
    ➤ They are less likely to see a therapist, less likely to be diagnosed with depression,
    ➤ less likely to be taking prescription medication.
    ➤ the men are happier and healthier.
    ➤ And finally, they have more sex.
    Video presentation by Michael Kimmel, Ph.D. (*1951) US American professor of sociology, pre-eminent scholar of men and masculinity, gender researcher, Stony Brook University, New York, founder and editor of the academic journal Men and Masculinities, Michael Kimmel: Why gender equality is good for everyone – men included, transcript, presented by TEDWomen 2015, Monterey, California, 15:58 minutes duration, filmed 27-29 May 2015

 

(↓)

Note:

Motivational deficit, character failing rather and five underdeveloped brain regions

  • Up to 11 percent of U.S. children and around 5 percent of U.S. adults have been diagnosed with ADHD, which causes symptoms like difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, irritability and forgetfulness.
    A team of Dutch neuroscientists analyzed MRI scans of the brains of more than 3,200 people between the ages of four and 63 years old (with a median age of 14 years old), measuring total brain volume as well as the volume of seven brain regions thought to be linked to ADHD. Roughly half of the participants had a diagnosis of ADHD. The brain scans revealed that five brain regions were smaller in people with ADHD. These include the amygdala, an almond-shaped structure involved in processing emotions like fear and pleasure; the hippocampus, which plays a role in learning, memory and emotion; and three brain areas within the striatum – the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the nucleus accumbens. The structures within the striatum are involved in the brain's reward system and in its processing of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that helps control motivation and pleasure. ADHD involves delayed brain development. Article People With ADHD Have Different Brains, presented by the US American liberal-oriented online newspaper The Huffington Post, Carolyn Gregoire, 24. February 2017

 

ADHD statistics in America (France) – ~2016
⚑ ~5% of US of US adults have been diagnosed with ADHD.
⚑ Less than 5% of French children are diagnosed and medicated for ADHD.
⚑ 11% of US children and around 5 percent of US adults have been diagnosed with ADHD.
⚑ 1 in 10 US children has ADHD.
⚑ 10% of high school pupils are prescribed drugs for ADHD.
⚑ 40% of adolescents with ADHD have been arrested by their 18th birthday.[*]
Reference: en.Wikipedia entries
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
► Personality Leon Eisenberg, M.D., D.Sc. [Scientific father of ADHD] (1922-2009)
    US American child psychiatrist, social psychiatrist, medical educator

 

Terrifying US statistics of fatherlessness
⚑  72 percent of adolescent murderers grew up without fathers.
⚑  60 percent of all rapists. grew up without fathers.
⚑  70 percent of juveniles in state institutions grew up in single- or no-parent situations.
⚑  The number of single-parent households is a good predictor of violent crime in a community,
     while poverty rate is not.
⚑  About 40 percent of children in fatherless homes have not seen their dads in a year or more.
Source: ► Article Statistics on Fatherless Children in America,
presented by the publication The Spruce, Wayne Parker, 17. February 2017

 

  • Witchdoctors and psychiatrists perform essentially the same function in their respective cultures. They are both therapists; both treat patients using similar techniques; and both get similar results. Recognition of this should not downgrade psychiatrists; rather it should upgrade witchdoctors. Edwin Fuller Torrey, M.D. (*1937) US American psychiatrist, schizophrenia researcher, Stanley Medical Research Institute (SMRI), author, The Mind Game. Witchdoctors and psychiatrists, Introduction, Emerson Hall Publishers, 1st edition 1972, Bantam, 1973

 

(↓)

Hoffer called for a system's change at age 89: Holding doctors accountable for doing a lousy job

  • The main message has to be that we have to change the [medical] system. The system is sick and corrupt. Eventually, we have to make the medical profession accountable. [...] We have to ask them: Why is the medical profession not held accountable? We need an independent commission headed by a judge to examine why doctors don't do a better job. Big Pharma controls medicine today. […] And they control [and advertising and] the journals. [...] We are in a terrible situation. The system is really sick. And you can quote me literally. I think, the system is absolutely sick [dysfuntional]. And it has to be changed. […] We have to let the public exactly know what's happening, because right now they don't know. Video interview with Abram Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D. (1917-2009) Canadian psychiatrist, biochemist, agricultural chemist, Natural Cure for Depression, Bipolar, ADHD, Schizophrenia, YouTube film, sponsored by Healthy Mind Body Planet Tour 2006, minute 6:27 and 8:21, 9:26 minutes duration, posted 15. December 2007

 

  • Psychiatry is dying now because it finally has come to full bloom and, as such, is found not to be viable. Edwin Fuller Torrey, M.D. (*1937) US American psychiatrist, schizophrenia researcher, Stanley Medical Research Institute (SMRI), author, The Death Of Psychiatry, S. 24, Chilton Book Company, Radmor, 1974

 

 

Literature

HIGHLY overdiagnosed, Saul calls ADHD "neurochemical distractability/impulsivity".

Articles

Certain brain structures related to emotion and reward are smaller in people with the disorder, new research finds.

Video links

  • RSA Animate presentation by Sir Ken Robinson (*1950) British professor of arts education, University of Warwick (1989-2001), international advisor on education, director of The Arts in Schools Project (1985-1989), speaker, author, Changing education paradigms, presented by TED Talks, 11:40 minutes duration, recorded October 2010, posted December 2010

Divergent thinking study – multiple answers to interperting a question
Link between three troubling trends: 1. Rising drop-out rates 2. Schools' dwindling stake in the arts 3. ADHD

An underdeveloped anterior cingulate cortex in the brain of an ADHD patient results in poor emotional regulation of conflictuous social interaction.

  • Interview with Gabor Maté, M.D. drgabormate.com (*1944) Hungarian-Canadian physician, addiction expert, speaker, author, Parental Stress and Its Impact on Kids, location: KMT Child Development and Community conference in Toronto, presented by TVOparents.com, host Cheryl Jackson, YouTube film, 13:26 minutes duration, posted by tvoparents 25. May 2012

Parental stress and its negative impact on children; autism and ADHD – Minute 4:07 and Minute 6:38

ADHD i.e. absent-mindedness as a coping mechanism, active recall and implicit memory, counter-will
Postpartum depression in 20% of all mothers is a risk factor for ADD in the child.

Enormous rise of ADHD diagnosed US children, research into the origin of the perceived disorder =
evolutionary adaption instead of a disorder.

Founding fathers of psychology

Psychological approaches and their inventors
༺༻Psychologist Life spanTherapy formLegend
1.·Wilhelm·Wundt1832-1920STRUCTURALISM
Experimental psychology
Interested in unobservable consciousness; breaking down consciousness into different parts (thoughts, feelings, sights, sounds)
2.William James1842-1910FUNCTIONALISM Studied consciousness, believed that by breaking it down into diffrerent parts it miss-represented the "wholeness" of consciousness; chose to study the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure
3. Sigmund Freud1856-1939 PYCHOANALYSIS Believed that one's unconcious mind was revealed in dreams, jokes and slips of the tongue
4.John Watson1878-1958BEHAVIOURISM Studied observable behaviour (unlike the other three); believed that all of one's actions were either to avoid punishment, or gain reinforcement; established the first consumer research center in 1921
5. Carl Rogers1902-1987HUMANISM Believed that individuals behave in whatever way they want and change their behaviour as they please; was convinced that we control our own destinies.
Source: ► Overview Founding Fathers of Psychology, presented by Quizlet, undated
See also: ► Shifting the cultural zeitgeist in Western societiesConsciousness and ► Purpose

 

Therapeutic shitology

 Comparative therapies 101 – Humorous
༺༻Therapy formRespective shitology
1.Freudian therapy Your mother makes shit happen.
2.Behaviourism Shit happens after the bell sounds.
3.Rational emotive therapy Own your shit.
4.Cognitive therapy Think about your shit rationally.
5.Humanistic therapy Your shit is good.
6.Gestalt therapy Where is your shit in this moment?
7.Play therapy Play with your shit.
8.Solution-focused therapy How do you want your shit to be different?
9.Narrative therapy Shit happens in your own story.
10.Couples therapy You're shit.
11.Family therapy Someone has to be responsible for this shit.
12.Group therapy Share your shit.
13.Harm reduction therapy How can you make shit less important in your life?
14.12 step therapy Admit you are powerless over shit.
15.Brief therapy This shit better be over soon.
16.Systemic therapy Make a nice recursion out of your shit.
17.Pyramidal meditative intervention therapy Get your shit in a pile.

 

Shit happens.
ShiFt emerges.
Shitholes stink.
ShiFtWholes blink.

Not enough cow dung!


Cow dung

Johnny goes to modeling class in his school for special [mentally retarded] children and he gets his piece of putty and he's modeling it. He takes a little lump of putty and goes to a corner of the room and he's playing with it.
The teacher comes up to him and says,

"Hi, Johnny."
And Johnny says,
"Hi."

And the teacher says,

"What's that you've got in your hand?"

And Johnny says,

"This is a lump of cow dung."

The teacher asks,

"What are you making out of it?"

He says,

"I'm making a teacher."

The teacher thought,

"Little Johnny has regressed."

So she calls out to the principal, who was passing by the door at that moment, and says,

"Johnny has regressed."

So the principal goes up to Johnny and says,

"Hi, son."

And Johnny says,

"Hi."

Cow dung

And the principal says,

"What do you have in your hand?"

And he says,

"A lump of cow dung."
"What are you making out of it?"

And he says,

"A principal."

The principal thinks that this is a case for the school psychologist.

"Send for the psychologist!"

The psychologist is a clever guy. He goes up and says,

"Hi."

And Johnny says,

"Hi."

And the psychologist says,

"I know what you've got in your hand." "What?" "A lump cow dung."

Johnny says,

"Right."
"And I know what you're making out of it."
"What?"
"You're making a psychologist."
"Wrong. Not enough cow dung!"
Source: ► Video lecture by Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) Indian Jesuit priest, psychotherapist, spiritual leader, author,
Wake Up to Life! – Awareness – On psychology, presented by Tabor Publishing, 1986, YouTube film, minute 2:03
7:34 minutes duration, posted 25. November 2008
See also: ► Stories

Gestalt prayer – Fritz Perls

The Gestalt Prayer
I am I – and you are you.

I do my thing and you do your thing.
I am not in this world to live up to your expectations
And you are not in this world to live up to mine.

You are you and I am I.
And if by chance we find each other, it's beautiful,
If not, it can't be helped.

 

Source: ► Fritz Perls (1893-1970) German-born US American psychiatrist, psychotherapist,
Gestalt Therapy pioneer, Gestalt prayer in "Gestalt Therapy Verbatim", 1969

 

Links zum Thema (Positive) Psychologie / (Positive) Psychology

Literatur

Literature (engl.)

Jean Piaget is often considered to be one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century in the field of cognition. Callaway challenges Piaget's frequent dual use of the meanings of words within the same paragraph. Extensive comparisons and examples of this extraordinary phenomenon are presented. Conclusions are offered to explain Piaget's intent.

Psychology, psychotherapy, and psychiatry are heavily dependent on culture. Witchdoctors, who employ exorcisms and other magical practices within their culture, are just as effective as psychiatrists in Western civilizations.
Similar techniques of therapy in all cultures: confession, the naming process, suggestion, analysis of dreams, role-playing
Rumpelstiltskin principle or 'magic of the right word': for psychotherapy to work, there must be a common subculture or world-view shared by healer and patient.
Personal qualities required for successful therapist accurate empathy, nonpossessive warmth, and genuineness.

Dawes claims to have done a meta-analysis of research into the success of psychotherapy. While in a few cases, such as anxiety disorders, a specific therapy can help, for the most part all therapies are equally successful, or unsuccessful, regardless of their theoretical underpinnings. Experimental research showed that after a short period of training, any intelligent person can produce therapy results equal to those of trained psychologists. They are also as good at predicting future behavior, all of which makes psychprofessionals dubious experts in legal matters.

Powerful critique of modern materialist psychiatry, offering an alternative vision of how the natural healing process can be encouraged with compassionate therapy instead of being suppressed with coercive "treatment"
Were Jesus admitted to a modern psychiatric hospital, he'd be diagnosed as "mentally imbalanced" and injected with anti-psychotic medication. If his delusional symptoms continued for more than a few days, the drug dosage would be increased. Eventually the patient's condition would be stabilized, allowing a transfer from the locked ward to a halfway house, thence to a board-and-care home, with biweekly visits to an outpatient clinic. No longer a threat to himself and others, Jesus would begin his career as a permanent client of the US American mental health system.

Psychiatry as a profession and belief system dissected and scrutinized
Without solid scientific justification, the number of mental disorders has risen from 106 in 1952 to 374 in 2013.


Literature (engl.) – Robert Johnson

Bibliography – Robert A. Johnson (1921-2018) US American Jungian analyst, lecturer, author


Externe Weblinks




External web links (engl.)


  • Wikiwand List of psychological effects: Audience effect • Ambiguity effect • Assembly bonus effect • Baader-Meinhof effect • Barnum effect • Bezold effect • Birthday-number effect • Boomerang effect • Bouba/kiki effect • Bystander effect • Cinderella effect • Cocktail party effect • Contrast effect • Coolidge effect • Cross-race effect •  Dunning–Kruger effect • Endowment effect • False-consensus effect • False-uniqueness effect • False-fame effect • Fan effect • Framing effect • Florence Nightingale effect • Flynn effect • Focusing effect • Generation effect • Google effect • Halo effect • Hawthorne effect • Hedonic treadmill • Hostile media effect • Hypersonic effect • Irrelevant speech effect • Kappa effect • Kinetic depth effect • Kuleshov Effect • Lady Macbeth effect • Lake Wobegon effect • Lawn dart effect • Levels-of-processing effect • Less-is-better effect • Martha Mitchell effect • Matthew effect (education) • McCollough effect • McGurk effect • Mere-exposure effect • Microwave auditory effect • Misinformation effect • Missing letter effect • Modality effect • Mozart effect • Munchausen syndrome • Name-letter effect • Negativity effect • Novelty effect • Numerosity adaptation effect • Observer-expectancy effect • Out-group homogeneity effect • Overconfidence effect • Overjustification effect • Partial report superiority effect • Peltzman effect • Perruchet effect • Picture superiority effect • Placebo effect • Positivity effect • Pratfall effect • Precedence effect • Primacy effect • Prominence effect • Pseudocertainty effect • Purkinje effect • Pygmalion effect • Rashomon effect • Recency effect • Rhyme-as-reason effect • Ringelmann effect • Rumpelstilzchen effect • Self-reference effect • Serial position effect • Simon effect • Sleeper effect • Spacing effect • Spotlight effect • Stockholm syndrome • Stroop effect • Subadditivity effect • Subject-expectancy effect • Tamagotchi effect • Telescoping effect • Testing effect • Tetris effect • Thatcher effect • Ventriloquism effect • Venus effect • Von Restorff effect • Wagon-wheel effect • Well travelled road effect • Werther effect • Word frequency effect • Word superiority effect • Worse-than-average effect • Zeigarnik effect

On conflict resolution

Introverts tend to be a bit more empathetic than extroverts.

The condition known as "dissociative identity disorder" (formerly known as MPD) might provide an explanation of the fundamental nature of reality.

Repression • Distortion • Reaction • Formation • Projection • Splitting • Groupthink • Idealization • Intellectualization • Rationalization • Displacement • Sublimation • Altruism • Humour as ego defense • Asceticism

Audio- und Videolinks

  • Video Fernsehpräsentation von George Pennington, britisch-deutscher Psychologe, Trainer, Coach, Autor, Wie funktioniert Mensch-Sein, Teil 1/13 der Sendereihe Bewusst leben. Psychologie für den Alltag, präsentiert von dem deutschen Fernseh-Bildungskanal BR-alpha, gesendet 2005 und 2013, YouTube Film, 14:13 Minuten Dauer, eingestellt 22. Januar 2011
  • Audiointerview mit Arno Gruen (1923-2015) deutsch-schweizerischer Psychologe, Psychoanalytiker, Zivilisationskritiker, Schriftsteller, Warum sind wir so gerne gehorsam?, präsentiert von dem öffentlich-rechtlichen, werbefreien Rundfunksender Deutschlandfunk (DLF), Programm Deutschlandradio Kultur, Gastgeberin Britta Bürger, aufgezeichnet 24. November 2014, YouTube Film, 36:02 Minuten Dauer, eingestellt 30. März 2015

Besprechung der Inhalte von Gruens letztem Buch Wider den Gehorsam – Siehe Nachruf Warum sind wir so gerne gehorsam?, 2015

Aufruf zu Gruens Buch Wider den Gehorsam

Dokumentationen und Filme

Nach den gleichnamigen Büchern des kanadischen Psychiaters und Psychoanalytikers Dr. med. Norman Doidge, 2008 und 2015

Audio and video links (engl.)

Human tendency to negativity

  • Video presentation by Susan Cain (*1968) US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, lecturer, author of Quiet, The power of introverts [Die Macht der Introvertierten], transcript, presented by TED Talks 2012, 19:04 minutes duration, filmed February 2012, posted March 2012

2:3 ratio: At least one-third of the population are introverts, roughly two-thirds are extroverts.

Testing the dark side of authority-obedience: Milgram experiment and other harm-inducing human behavior experiments

Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) US American social psychologist: "Under what conditions would a person obey authority who commanded actions that went against conscience?" Minute 4:18
  • Video presentation by Susan Cain, US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, author, The Power of Introverts, recorded by the event video production company Fora.tv, 47:54 minutes duration, aired 21. August 2013
  • Video TV interview with Paula Joan Caplan, Ph.D. (*1947) US American clinical and research psychologist, activist, social justice and human rights advocate, DSM-defiant, actor, director, award-winning playwright, screenwriter, nonfiction writer, How psychiatrists decide who's normal?, presented by Canadian TV station TVO, Ontario, host Allan Gregg (*1952) Canadian political advisor, pollster, pundit, YouTube film, 25:02 minutes duration, 12. October 2013

After rereading Freud's thesis on the mental label "women's masochism", defined as "pleasure in pain", Caplan, missing the term 'Macho personality disorder' defeated Freud in 'The Myth of Women's Masochism.' 'Women's masochism' was redefined as selfdefeating personality disorder, proposed in DSM III-R for further review.

  • Video interview with Louis Sass, Ph.D., US American professor of clinical psychology, graduate school of applied and professional psychology, Rutgers University, expert in severe psychopathology, philosophy and psychology, author, Louis Sass OH HD 2016, presented by Sagacity, host John Z. Sadler, Vimeo video, 1:11:03 duration, posted 21. January 2017
  • Audio interview with Dr. Lucy Johnstone, British clinical psychologist, long-standing critic of biomedical model psychiatry, trainer, speaker, writer, Lucy Johnstone – Against Psychiatric Diagnosis MP3, presented by Nous The Podcast, founder and host Ilan Goodman, YouTube film, 1:07:14 minutes duration, posted 14. December 2018

Restoring the links between personal distress and social injustice, rejecting psychiatric diagnosis, identifying patterns (with meaning as organizing principle) – four basic questions to unlock the patterned narrative of the distressed human

Audio and video links (engl.) – Martin Seligman

  • TV interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, presented by BBC World News, program HARDtalk, YouTube film, posted 19. December 2007
    • HARDtalk, part 1 of 3, 3:34 minutes duration
      "Optimistic people live 8 to 9 years longer than pessimists."
    • HARDtalk, part 2 of 3, 3:15 minutes duration
    • HARDtalk, part 3 of 3, 5:08 minutes duration
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Positive Psychology and Psychotherapy, presented by the free online magazine "Psychotherapy.net", Randall C. Wyatt, YouTube film, 3:23 minutes duration, posted 6. May 2009
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Counter-Intuitive Findings, presented by happier.com, YouTube film, 1:04 minutes duration, posted 4. October 2009
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Definition of Optimism, presented by happier.com, YouTube film, 2:00 minutes duration, posted 4. October 2009
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Top Strengths, presented by happier.com, YouTube film, 1:56 minutes duration, posted 4. October 2009

Audio and video links (engl.) – Tal Ben-Shahar

 

Interne Links

Wegbereiter und Forschende

English

Hawkins

 

 

1 Merton, R.K., The self-fulfilling prophecy, presented by the US American literary magazine The Antioch Review, # 8, S. 193-210, 1948

2 Leon Festinger (1919-1989) US American social psychologist, known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory, Stanley Schachter (1922-1997) US American social psychologist, Henry Riecken, classic work of social psychology When Prophecy Fails. A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group That Predicted the Destruction of the World, Harper-Torchbooks, New York, 1. January 1956

3 Solomon E. Asch (1907-1996) polnisch-US-amerikanischer Gestaltpsychologe, Pionier der Sozialpsychologie, Studies of independence and conformity. A minority of one against a unanimous majority, presented by the journal Psychological Monographs, Themenheft, issue 70, 1956

4 Leon Festinger (1919-1989) US American social psychologist, known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory, James M. Carlsmith, Cognitive consequences of forced compliance, presented by the peer-reviewed academic APA journal Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, # 58, S. 203-210, 1959

5 Lifton, R.J., Thought reform and the psychology of totalism, Norton & Company, New York, 1963

6 Julian B. Rotter (1916-2014) US-amerikanischer Psychologe, Entwickler der sozialen Lerntheorie und der Theorie der Kontrollüberzeugungen, Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement, presented by the journal Psychological Monographs, Themenheft, issue 80, 1966

7 R. Hernandez-Peon, Physiological mechanisms in attention, cited in: R.W. Russel, editor, Frontiers in physiological psychology, Academic Press, New York, 1966

8 Artikel von Dr. Philip G. Zimbardo (*1933) US-amerikanischer Professor Emeritus für Sozialpsychologie, Stanford University, Autor, The human choice. Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse and chaos; zitiert in: W.D. Arnold, D. Levine, Herausgeber, Nebraska symposum on motivation, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1969

9 B. Weiner, Herausgeber, Achievement motivation and attribution theory, General Learning Press, Morristown, 1974

10 S. Milgram, Obedience to authority, Harper & Row, New York, 1974

11 Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US-amerikanischer Professor für Psychologie, Universität von Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Autor, Helplessness. On Depression, Development, and Death, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1975, Neudruck Juni 1992

12 Henning Saß, Personality Disorders, presented by the 26-volume work International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences published by Elsevier, S. 11301–11308, 2001

13 B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) US American professor of psychology, Harvard University (1958-1974), behaviorist, social philosopher, MKUltra agent, inventor, author, The Shaping of a Behaviorist. Part Two of an Autobiography, S. 347-348, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1979

14 Harvey Mindess, Makers of Psychology. The Personal Factor, S. 102, Human Sciences Press, New York, 1. January 1988

15 Video documentary Asch Conformity Experiment procured by Solomon Asch during the 1950s, presented by Philip G. Zimbardo (*1933) US American professor emeritus of social psychology, Stanford University, author, YouTube film, 5:45 minutes duration, posted by HeroicImaginationTV 19. February 2012

16 Kendra Van Wagner, On psychology experiments, presented by About.com, 30. October 2009

17 Marshmallow study, Sybervision.com

18 Learned Helplessness (LH) is defined as "the condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed."

19 Article Penn prof. 'horrified' life's research is connected to CIA torture techniques , presented by US American newspaper The Daily Pennsylvanian, Dan Spinelli, 22. December 2014

20 Article Will the Stanford Prison Experiment Ever Die? The most famous psychology study in history has once again been debunked., presented by the stories outlet Medium, Ben Blum, 13. August 2019

21 Leon Festinger (1919-1989) US American social psychologist, known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford University Press, 1962

22 Jean-Claude Duvalier [Baby Doc] (*1951) Haitian dictatorial president (1971-1986), overthrown by a popular uprising, believed himself to introduce democracy in Haiti.

23 Ignaz Semmelweis, M.D. (1818-1865) Hungarian physician, pioneer of antiseptic procedures

24 Congressional testimony [confession] on the financial crisis, 2008 by Alan Greenspan 23. October 2008:
"Those of us who have looked to the self-interest of lending institutions to protect shareholder's equity – myself especially – are in a state of shocked disbelief. I have found a flaw [in my free-market ideology]. I don’t know how significant or permanent it is. But I have been very distressed by that fact. […] I have been going for 40 years or more with very considerable evidence that it was working exceptionally well."
Daniel Kahnemann, Ph.D. (*1934) Israeli-American professor of psychology, Princeton, founder of behavioral economics, Nobel laureate in economic sciences, 2002, commenting Alan Greenspan's confession, How Greenspan's Framework Went Awry, YouTube film, minute 0:10, 3:03 minutes duration, posted 23. February 2009:
[Paraphrased] My theory of the world was wrong. My framework was wrong. I expected financial firms in particular to protect their interests and to protect their longterm survival. I did not expect them to engage in what turned out to be potentially suicidal policies.

25 Carol Tavris, Ph.D. (*1944) US American social psychologist, author, Elliot Aronson (*1932) US American psychologist, author, Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me). Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts, Mariner Books, reprint edition March 2008

26 Article LOVE & DEATH: In His Final Interview, Just Before His Suicide, Bruno Bettelheim Explained Why He Wanted to Die, presented by the US American daily newspaper Los Angeles Times, Celeste Fremon, US American free-lance writer, 27. January 1991

27 Article In the Case of Bruno Bettelheim, presented by (c) by First Things, Molly Finn, 1996, June/July 1997

28 Ear flapping elders

 

Letzte Bearbeitung:
06.09.2019 um 02:42 Uhr

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