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EthikMoral ❁ Integrität

 

 

Artischocke – Tapete

 


 

Wortherkunft von Ethik

Der Begriff Ethik stammt aus dem Griechischen. Er drückt die persönliche Einstellung zum Guten aus.
Der Begriff Moral stammt aus dem Lateinischen. Moral ist den Einzelnen im Interesse der Gesamtbevölkerung zu bevormunden.
Moralische Forderungen als "Ethik" darzustellen, ist "Ethik"-ettenschwindel laut der Zeitschrift Happiness Observer des Instituts für Europäische Glücksforschung, Ausgabe Mai 2009.


 

The term ethics stems from Greek. It expresses one's personal attitude to the good.
The term morality is derived from Latin. Morality is to patronise the individual in the interest of the entire population.
According to the Happiness Observer (May 2009) run by the Institute for European Happiness Research, presenting moral demands as "ethics" is false labeling ["Ethik"-ettenschwindel].

Sechs Säulen der Ethik – Jonathan Haidt

Der Amerikaner Jonathan Haidt war assoziierter Professor für Positive Psychologie an der Universität von Virginia. Im Jahr 2001 hat er den Templeton-Preis für Positive Psychologie erhalten, und im Jahr 2004 wurde er mit dem Virginia "Outstanding Faculty Award" ausgezeichnet.
Der Autor des Buchs The Happiness Hypothesis. Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom ["Die Glückshypothese. Zeitgemäße Wahrheit angesichts althergebrachter Weisheit"] ist ein weltlich gesinnter Atheist, der altem Wissen großen Respekt entgegen bringt.

 

Sechs Säulen von Moral und Ethik
Jonathan Haidt und Craig Joseph
Ergebnisse einer Fragebogen-Umfrage an 23.000 US-Amerikanern
SäuleFokusMoralische-ethische Werte
und ihre Gegenspieler
BeschreibungInteresse
Politische Ausrichtung
U.S.-Partei
1.Gemeinschaft Fürsorge⇔·BeeinträchtigungMitmenschen schätzen
und beschützen
70% Interesse Liberale Konservative
2.Gemeinschaft Fairness/
Proportionalität/
Gegenseitigkeit
BetrügenGerechtigkeit entsprechend
der allgemeinen Regeln
walten lassen
30% Interesse Liberale Konservative
3.Gemeinschaft Freiheit UnterdrückungZwangs-/Gewaltherrschaft/Rankismus verabscheuen  Liberale Konservative
4.Familie Eigengruppen-
favorisierung/
Gefolgschaft
UmsturzZur eigenen Gruppe,
Familie, Nation halten
Stammes-/
Sippenbe-
wusstsein
N/A Konservative
5.Familie Autorität/Respekt·⇔ VerratTraditionen einhalten, rechtmäßiger Autorität gehorchen N/A Konservative
6.Religion Reinheit/Heiligkeit/
Unverletzlichkeit
·⇔
⇔·Herabwürdigung/
     Erniedrigung
Widerliche Dingen, Essen, Handlungen verabscheuen N/A Konservative
Video Referenz (engl.):
► Video Fernsehinterview mit Jonathan Haidt, Ph.D. (*1963) US-amerikanischer Professor für Sozial-, Kultur-, Moralpsychologie und
     ethisches Führungswissen, New York University Stern School of Business, Autor, Jonathan Haidt Explains Our Contentious Culture,
     präsentiert von der Fernsehshow Moyers & Company, Gastgeber Bill Moyers (*1934) US-amerikanischer politischer Kommentator,
     Journalist, YouTube Film, 47:09 Minuten Dauer, eingestellt von TheEthanwashere, 13. Juni 2012
Folgebuch:
Jonathan Haidt, Ph.D. (*1963) US-amerikanischer Professor für Sozial-, Kultur-, Moralpsychologie und ethisches Führungswissen,
     New York University Stern School of Business, Autor, The Righteous Mind. Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion,
     Vintage, 2012, reprint edition 12. February 2013
Referenz: de.Wikipedia-Eintrag Moral Foundations Theory
Siehe auch : ► Politik und ► Kultur
See also : ► Six pillars of morality – Jonathan Haidt

 

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Religiös-konservative Menschen sind glücklichere Menschen.

Es spielt keine Rolle, wer im Weißen Haus regiert. Konservative, religiöse Menschen sind glücklicher. Konservative sind in dichtere, verbindlichere Strukturen eingebunden.  Videopräsentation und Diskussion über die Fünf Säulen der Moral von und mit Prof. Jonathan Haidt (*1963) US-amerikanischer Professor für Sozial-, Kultur- Moralpsychologie und ethisches Führungswissen, New York University Stern School of Business, Autor, Morality: 2012 Konferenz, veranstaltet von dem US-amerikanischen Magazin New Yorker, Gastgeber Henry Finder, 7. Mai 2007

Stufenmodell der moralischen Entwicklung – Lawrence Kohlberg

Sechs Stufen der moralischen Entwicklung – Kohlberg-Skala
Kritiker von Kohlbergs Stufenmodells monieren, dass er sich bei seinen Forschungen nur an männlichen Probanden orientiert hat.
༺༻EbeneStadiumAlterOrientierungFokusBemerkung
1 Präkonventionell0  Vorbereitung des moralischen Denkens  Recht ist,
was ich will.
1 Präkonventionell1Alter 0-9
Einige Jugendliche, viele jugendliche/erwachsene Straftäter
Bestrafung / Gehorsam
Strafvermeidung
Wer die Macht hat, hat das Sagen. Ich gebe, damit du (mir) gibst.
1 Präkonventionell2Alter 0-9
Einige Jugendliche, viele jugendliche/erwachsene Straftäter
Eigennutz
Instrumental-relativistisch
Vorteilsnahme
Moralischer Relativismus
Recht ist, was mir gut tut.
2 Konventionell3Alter 13
Großteil der Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen
Konformität
interpersonelle Eintracht
Soziale Normen
Recht ist, was man sagt, was recht ist.
Guter Junge/braves Mädchen-Moral
                                               "Das Gegenteil von Gut ist nicht Böse, sondern gut gemeint."  Kurt Tucholsky
2 Konventionell4Alter 13
Großteil der Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen
Autorität und Aufrechterhaltung der Sozialordnung Moral von Recht und Ordnung Recht ist, was die Autoritäten sagen.
2+ Übergang4,5Alter 18-20Willkürliche "Anpass-
ung von Recht und Ordnung"
Rückschlag 
        Solange das ethische Prinzip noch nicht verinnerlicht und verankert ist, sind Rückfalle in die konventionelle Stufe leicht möglich.
3 Postkonventionell
Autonom
5Älter als 20
25% der Erwachsenen
Legalistische Orientierung am Sozialvertrag, MenschenrechteGesellschaftliche Standards Was R(r)echt ist, muss kritisch geprüft werden.
3 Postkonventionell
Prinzipiengerecht
6Älter als 20
5% der Erwachsenen
Universell-ethische Prinzipien
Menschenrechte
Prinzipientreues Gewissen
Vernunftbasierte Moral
Gleiches Recht für alle.
                                                      Goldene RegelKategorische ImperativDiskursethik
                                       Erwägung von abstrakten Prinzipien, Konfliktlösungen zugunsten aller Beteiligten
Quelle: ► Weitgehend zitiert aus: Kognition, Sprache, Persönlichkeit, IIM Universität Gießen
Referenz: ► Zur Kohlberg-Theorie, präsentiert von PsyDok Psychologie Information, ZPID, Leibniz Institut, undatiert
Referenzen: de.Wikipedia-Einträge
Urheber: Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) US-amerikanischer Professor für Erziehungswissenschaft und Psychologe
Theorie: Kohlbergs' Stufentheorie des moralischen Verhaltens
Siehe auch: ► Stufenmodelle

Moralentwicklung bei Frauen und Männern – Carol Gilligan

Die US-amerikanische Professorin für Genderstudien Carol Gilligan (*1936) war Schülerin des Erziehungswissenschaftlers Lawrence Kohlberg. Sie entdeckte, dass die Begegnung mit einem Menschen in Not geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedlich ausfällt:
       ⚑  Frauen orientieren sich stärker am Beziehungs-, Interaktions- und Verantwortungsgefüge.
       ⚑  Männer orientieren sich eher an abstrakten Rechten und Pflichten.
Der männlichen Gerechtigkeitsmoral steht die weibliche Fürsorgemoral (Phönixprozess) strukturell gleichwertig gegenüber.

 

Sowohl Frauen als auch Männer entwickeln sich hierarchisch.
Frauen denken von Natur aus nicht hierarchisch, entwickeln sich allerdings hierarchisch.
   ⚑  Frauen agieren vorwiegend verbindend und verbindlich.
   ⚑  Männer denken eher autonom und in Rangordnungen. Sie sind tatorientiert.

 

      Vier moralische Entwicklungsstufen      
Weibliche Fürsorgemoral      ⇔       Männliche Gerechtigkeitsmoral
༺༻EbeneStadium Fürsorgemoral
Phönixprozess
Gerechtigkeitsmoral
Pflichtbewusstsein
Kernsatz
1. Egozentrisch Prä-
konventionell
Selbstsüchtig
Fürsorglich
Selbstsüchtig
Gerecht/pflichtig
Ich liebe mich.
2. Ethnozentrisch Prä-
konventionell
Sippenbezogen
Fürsorglich
Sippenbezogen
Gerecht/pflichtig
|ch liebe dich.
3. Weltzentrisch KonventionellUniversal
Fürsorglich
Universal
Gerecht/pflichtig
Ich liebe dich mehr als mich.
4. Kosmozentrisch-integral Post-
konventionell
Integriert
Fürsorglich
Integriert
Gerecht/pflichtig
Ich liebe mich und dich.
Quelle: ► Dr. Carol Gilligan (*1936) US-amerikanische Professorin für Genderstudien, Feministin, Psychologin, Ethikerin im Bereich Gemeinschaft und Beziehung, Autorin, Die andere Stimme. Lebenskonflikte und Moral der Frau,
Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (dtv), München, 1996
Video references featuring Carol Gilligan, Ph.D. webster.edu (*1936) US American professor of gender studies, psychologist, feminist, ethicist (community, relationships), writer – Biography
► Video interview clips Women and Moral Development, presented by the US American web portal Big Think, 6:29 minutes duration,
     recorded ~2008, 24. January 2012
► Educative video Gilligan – Theory of Women's Moral Development, presented by The College Student, Emily Abrams and Julia Smith,
     issued 20. October 2014, YouTube film, 5:54 minutes duration, posted 13. October 2014
► Educative video Carol Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development, presented by the Educational Portal, narrated by
     Melissa Hurst, Ph.D., YouTube film, 7:00 minutes duration, posted 18. July 2016
Siehe auch: ► Stufenmodelle und ► Frauen / Frauen und ► Männer und ► Gerechtigkeit und ► Ganzheit und ► Phönix

Utilitaristisches Prinzip

Der englische Jurist, Philosoph, Sozialreformer Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) war ein Vordenker des modernen Wohlfahrtsstaats. Er gründete den klassischen Utilitarismus, demzufolge eine Handlung auch ethisch hinsichtlich ihrer Nützlichkeit zu bewerten ist. Es gilt, das Glück Einzelner zum Wohl der Allgemeinheit zu maximieren und das Unglück zu minimieren. Das utilitaristische Prinzip erkennt die Legitimität des Tyrannenmords und benennt die moralische Pflicht der Zeitgenossen, den Diktator Adolf Hitler zu töten, um weiteres Leid zu verhindern.

 

Personal avowal
Gandhi is probably the first person in history to lift the love ethic of Jesus above mere interaction between individuals to a powerful and effective social force on a large scale. The intellectual and moral satisfaction that I failed to gain from the utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill, the revolutionary methods of Marx and Lenin, the social contract theory of Thomas Hobbes, the 'back to nature' optimism of Rousseau, and the superman philosophy of Nietzsche, I found in the non-violent resistance philosophy of Gandhi. I came to feel that this was the only morally and practically sound method open to oppressed people in their struggle for freedom.
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) US American clergyman, activist, leader of the African American civil rights movement, Stride Toward Freedom. The Montgomery Story, chapter 6 "My Pilgrimage to Nonviolence", Harper & Brothers, New York, New York, 1. September 1958, Souvenir Press, 17. January 2011

 

See also:
Innate goodness ⇔ innate badness
Timeline of Tavistock Clinic / Institute – Incomplete list of associated promoters
     and major social engineering foundations/agencies for parallel government operations

Zitate zum Thema Ethik und Moral / Morality

Zitate allgemein

Persönliche Bekenntnisse

  • Wenn ich auch nicht viel von Politik verstehe, und auch nicht den Ehrgeiz habe, es zu tun, so habe ich doch ein bisschen ein Gefühl, was Recht und Unrecht ist […]. Und ich könnte heulen, wie gemein die Menschen auch in der großen Politik sind, wie sie ihren Bruder verraten um eines Vorteils willen […]. Wir haben alle unsere Maßstäbe in uns selbst, nur werden sie zu wenig gesucht. Vielleicht auch, weil es die härtesten Maßstäbe sind. Sophie Scholl (1921-1943) deutsche "Weiße Rose"-Widerstandskämpferin gegen die nationalsozialistische Diktatur, Brief, den sie als Neunzehnjährige an ihren Verlobten Fritz Hartnagel schrieb, zitiert in: Sönke Zankel (*1973) deutscher Historiker, Lehrer, Autor, Mit Flugblättern gegen Hitler, S. 95, Böhlau Verlag, Köln, 2008

1943 wurde Sophie Scholl zusammen mit ihrem Bruder Hans beim Austeilen von Flugblättern in der Münchener Universität verhaftet. Vier Tage später wurden beide wegen "Hochverrat" und "Wehrkraftzersetzung" mittels einer Guillotine enthauptet.

 

  • Väterlicherseits habe ich den Glauben geerbt, dass kein Leben befriedigender sei als jenes, das im selbstlosen Dienst für das eigene Land – oder die Menschheit – gelebt wurde. Dieser Dienst verlangt das Opfer aller persönlichen Interessen, aber ebenso den Mut, unbeugsam für seine Überzeugung einzustehen. Radiointerview mit Dag Hammarskjöld (1905-1961) Dag Hammarskjöld (1905-1961) schwedischer Staatssekretär unter sozialdemokratisch geführten Regierungen, Diplomat, Wirtschaftswissenschaftler, zweiter UN-Generalsekretär, Schriftsteller, postmortaler Friedensnobelpreisträger, 1961, präsentiert von der New Yorker Radioshow "This I believe", April 1953, zitiert in: Stephan Mögle-Stadel (*1965) deutscher Lehrer, Publizist, Buchautor, Dag Hammarskjöld. Vision einer Menschheitsethik, S. 67, Verlag Urachhaus, Stuttgart, 1999

Hammarskjöld starb am 18. September 1961 bei einem ungeklärten Flugzeugabsturz. Kurz nach seinem Tod erhielt er den Friedensnobelpreis.

 

  • Ich bin für eine Ethik der Tugend. Wenn ich von Gerechtigkeit und Ehre spreche, beziehe ich mich auf die "Nikomachische Ethik". Bei Aristoteles gibt es keinen Widerspruch zwischen Mut und Klugheit (phronesis), die eine praktische Tugend ist, eine Art gesundes Urteilsvermögen. Mut kann nicht tugendhaft sein; das kann er nur, wenn etwas riskiert wird für eine Entität, die größer ist als man selbst. Ein törichter Spieler ist nicht mutig. Wenn ich aber mein Leben riskiere, um drei Kinder vor dem Ertrinken zu retten, deren kumulative Lebenserwartung höher ist als meine, dann ist das mutig und klug.
    • Gehe ich mein Risiko ein, um eine Gemeinschaft zu schützen, bin ich ein Held.
    • Gehe ich mein Risiko ein und bringe dabei eine Gemeinschaft in Unordnung, bin ich ein Dieb oder ein schlechter Intellektueller.
Zwischen den beiden Extremen ist alle Welt angesiedelt; 99 Prozent der Leute behalten Bodenhaftung und verstehen es, nicht mehr Risiken einzugehen, als man sollte. Der Taxifahrer weiß sehr wohl, dass er, wenn er zu schnell fährt, mit seinem Fahrgast sterben kann. Die beiden wesentlichen Begriffe beim Risiko sind für mich Klugheit und Gerechtigkeit, das heißt Symmetrie. Interview mit Nassim Nicholas Taleb (*1960) libanesisch-US-amerikanischer ehemaliger Finanzmathematiker, Forscher in Statistik, Zufall und Epistemologie, philosophischer Essayist, "Moralisch ist, wer seine Haut aufs Spiel setzt", präsentiert von der deutschen Zeitschrift für philosophische, gesellschaftliche, politische und lebensweltliche Themen Philosophie Magazin, Gastgeberin Catherine Portevin, Ausgabe Nr. 4 Herbst 2018

 

Schlussfolgerung

  • Wer sich für das Richtige einsetzt, tut das nicht, weil er glaubt, es wird funktionieren. Er tut es, weil es das Richtige ist. Ethisches Handeln muss nicht skalierbar sein, um ethisch zu sein. Essay von Tobias Haberkorn (*1984) deutscher Literaturwissenschaftler, Autor, Die Sintflut kommt. Ein Klimakrieg um Anerkennung, präsentiert von der überregionalen deutschen Wochenzeitung Zeit Online, Seite 3/3, 4. November 2018

 

Einsicht

  • Das Schöne bewundern,
    das Wahre behüten,
    das Edle verehren,
    das Gute beschließen;
es führet den Menschen, im Leben zu Zielen, im Handeln zum Rechten, im Fühlen zum Frieden, im Denken zum Lichte; und lehret ihn vertrauen, auf göttliches Walten, in allem, was ist: im Weltenall, im Seelengrund. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) kroatisch-österreichischer Begründer der Anthroposophie, Mystiker, Kulturphilosoph, Architekt, Literaturkritiker, Sozialreformer, Autor, Wahrspruchworte – Abendglockengebet, Rudolf Steiner Gesamtausgabe, Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach, S. 84, 1961, 2.-7. Auflage 1969, 1975, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1991, 8. überarbeitete Auflage 1998
(↓)

Ende der Religionen

Siehe auch: H.H. 14. Dalai Lama, Alexander Norman, contributor, Beyond Religion. Ethics for a Whole World, Mariner Books, 2011, reprint edition 6. November 2012

 

  • Moralische Fähigkeiten sind höher einzustufen als intellektuelle. Moralische Eigenschaften erleben einen direkten oder indirekten Fortschritt weit mehr durch das Einwirken von Gewohnheit, Vernunft, Anleitung, Religion etc. denn durch die natürliche Auslese. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) englischer Naturforscher, Entwickler der biologischen Evolutionstheorie, Quelle unbekannt

 

  • Ethik besteht darin, mich verpflichtet zu fühlen, allem Lebenden die gleiche Ehrfurcht entgegenzubringen, wie dem eigenen Leben. Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) deutsch-elsässischer evangelischer Theologe, Arzt, Philosoph, Humanist, Organist, Quelle unbekannt

 

  • Ethik ist ins Grenzenlose erweiterte Verantwortung gegen alles, was lebt. Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) deutsch-elsässischer evangelischer Theologe, Arzt, Philosoph, Organist, Humanist, Kultur und Ethik, Kapitel 21, C.H.Beck, München, 21. März 1996

 

(↓)

Dissoziierte unechte funktionierende Wirtschaftsdiener

  • Die heutige Wirtschaftswelt basiert auf Wachstum statt auf Ethik – dadurch werden Menschen gefördert, die funktionieren, aber nicht mehr sie selbst sind. Interview mit Prof. DDr. Gerald Hüther gerald-huether.de (*1951) deutscher Neurobiologe, Professor für neurobiologische Grundlagenforschung, Universität Göttingen, wissenschaftlicher und populärwissenschaftlicher Referent, Autor, zitiert in: Blogartikel Die Zeit der Einzelkämpfer ist vorbei, präsentiert von der Schweizer Tageszeitung Der Bund, Blogs, Mathias Morgenthaler, 15. Juni 2013

 

(↓)

Parameter des moralischen Handelns:

Selbstachtung, Umwelt und Erziehung

  • Der Mensch ist ein moralbegabtes Tier. Die Fähigkeit zur Moral ist angeboren, aber wie weit, lässt sich nur schwer sagen. Das Primatengehirn stellt Möglichkeiten bereit, sich in andere hineinzuversetzen, und es kennt (neurochemische) Belohnungen für "gute" Taten. Ethisches Verhalten ist ein komplexer Altruismus. Er besteht sowohl aus Gefühlen wie aus Abwägungen. Es gibt kein "moralisches Gesetz" im Menschen, wie Kant meinte, das ihn zum Gutsein verpflichtet. Aber moralisches Handeln ist entstanden, weil es sich oft für den Einzelnen und für seine Gruppe lohnt. Wie stark er davon Gebrauch macht, ist sehr weitgehend eine Frage der Selbstachtung, und diese wiederum eine Frage der Erziehung. Richard David Precht (*1964) deutscher Philosoph, Dozent, Fernsehmoderator, Publizist, Wer bin ich. Und wenn ja, wieviele? Eine philosophische Reise, Kapitelüberschrift "Ulm. Ein Winterabend im 30-jährigen Krieg. Woher weiß ich, wer ich bin?", S. 176, Goldmann Verlag, München, September 2007

 

(↓)

Abtreibung bis zum 3. Monat ist ethisch vertretbar.

  • Das Recht auf Leben, sein Wert und seine Würde, beginnen [...] nicht beim Zeugungsakt. Es ist deshalb nicht einzusehen, warum Embryonen bis zum dritten Monat nicht abgetrieben werden dürfen. Bei weiter entwickelten Föten ist die Sache problematischer. Eine Tötung ist von Monat zu Monat eine moralisch bedenklichere Sache. Richard David Precht (*1964) deutscher Philosoph, Dozent, Fernsehmoderator, Publizist, Wer bin ich. Und wenn ja, wieviele? Eine philosophische Reise, Kapitelüberschrift "Ulm. Ein Winterabend im 30-jährigen Krieg. Woher weiß ich, wer ich bin?", S. 195, Goldmann Verlag, München, September 2007

 

  • Werte wandeln sich mit der Zeit. Sie unterliegen wie alles andere den Megatrends der Globalisierung, Individualisierung und Feminisierung. Unsere Zukunfts-Werte werden weiblicher, individueller und globaler. Matthias Horx (*1955) deutscher Publizist, Zukunfts- und Trendforscher, Quelle unbekannt

 

 

  • [...] indem man Versuchspersonen untersucht, deren ventromedialer präfrontaler Cortex (VMPC) zerstört ist, eine Hirnregion hinter Nase und Stirn, die als Mittler zwischen Gefühl und Verstand gilt. Solche Menschen sind wenig einfühlsam und empfinden kaum Schuld oder Scham. [...] Ging es darum, direkte Gewalt anzuwenden, zögerten Probanden mit einem geschädigten VMPC nicht und segneten diese Handlungen als rational gerechtfertigt ab. Der einzige Maßstab, der sie offenbar zu interessieren schien, waren die Folgen einer Aktion, nicht die Handlung selbst. Artikel Hirnforschung und Ethik – Moral braucht Gefühl, präsentiert von der deutschen Tageszeitung Süddeutsche Zeitung, Hubertus Breuer, 22. September 2007

Zitate von Robert Spaemann

  • Wir sind gewöhnt, sogenannte moralische Fragen mit dem Wort 'sollen' zu verknüpfen, mit dem Gedanken an Gebote. Forderungen richten sich jedoch an unseren Willen. Um etwas zu tun, muss ich es wollen. Wenn wir etwas sollen, dann heißt das, wir sollen es wollen. Robert Spaemann (*1927) deutscher Professor für römisch-katholischer Philosophie, Mitglied der Ritter-Schule, Autor, Moralische Grundbegriffe, S. 24, C. H. Beck, München, 1982, Taschenbuchausgabe 26. Oktober 2004

 

  • Was also den Menschen gut macht, trägt in der christlichen Tradition den Namen "Liebe". Es ist eine Haltung der grundsätzlichen Bejahung der Wirklichkeit. Robert Spaemann (*1927) deutscher Professor für römisch-katholischer Philosophie, Mitglied der Ritter-Schule, Autor, Moralische Grundbegriffe, S. 94, C. H. Beck, München, 1982, Taschenbuchausgabe 26. Oktober 2004

 

  • Glück ist nicht der Lohn der Tugend, sondern die Tugend selbst. Robert Spaemann (*1927) deutscher Professor für römisch-katholischer Philosophie, Mitglied der Ritter-Schule, Autor, Moralische Grundbegriffe, S. 109, C. H. Beck, München, 1982, Taschenbuchausgabe 26. Oktober 2004

 

  • Die Fähigkeit, Werteinsichten zu gewinnen, wächst mit der Bereitschaft, sich ihnen zu unterwerfen. Robert Spaemann (*1927) deutscher Professor für römisch-katholischer Philosophie, Mitglied der Ritter-Schule, Autor, Moralische Grundbegriffe, S. 41, C. H. Beck, München, 1982, Taschenbuchausgabe 26. Oktober 2004

 

  • Die Unendlichkeit der menschlichen Reflexion, die jede bloße Naturgrenze hinterfragt, kommt nur zum Stehen durch die freie Anerkennung eines Wertes, der nicht relativ ist auf ein seinerseits wertfreies factum brutum. Eine solche Anerkennung nennen wir ,gut'. Robert Spaemann (*1927) deutscher Professor für römisch-katholischer Philosophie, Mitglied der Ritter-Schule, Autor, Reinhard Löw, Mitautor, Die Frage Wozu. Geschichte und Wiederentdeckung des Ideologischen Denkens, S. 291, Piper, München, 1981, August 1996

 

  • Aber warum fragen wir 'warum'? Was wollen wir eigentlich wissen, wenn wir so fragen? Die Frage entsteht immer dann, wenn ein normaler Ablauf unterbrochen wird. Ihr Ziel ist die Wiederherstellung des normalen Ganges. [...] Das Neue soll in das Vertraute integriert, die Verstehbarkeit der Welt ständig wiederhergestellt werden. Denn Verstehen heißt Vertrautsein, heißt Aufhebung der Fremdheit des Begegnenden. Robert Spaemann (*1927) deutscher Professor für römisch-katholischer Philosophie, Mitglied der Ritter-Schule, Autor, Reinhard Löw, Mitautor, Die Frage Wozu. Geschichte und Wiederentdeckung des Ideologischen Denkens, S. 15f, Piper, München, 1981, August 1996

 

  • Der Staat hat im Unterschied zum Individuum die Pflicht, so weit zu sehen, wie es unter Zuhilfenahme aller in einer Epoche zur Verfügung stehenden Mittel möglich ist. Interview mit Robert Spaemann (*1927) deutscher Professor für römisch-katholischer Philosophie, Mitglied der Ritter-Schule, Autor, präsentiert von der Zeitschrift "Scheidewege", Heft 4, Jahrgang 9, S. 484, 1979

General quotes

Personal avowals

  • Once I had a conversation with a German politician whose opinion was that morality and ethics have to be grounded in a religious faith tradition. Without that grounding, he felt, it is impossible to have an ethical system. But I disagree. My own understanding of an ethical system is that it provides us with a way of conduct, or a way of thinking, that takes long-term welfare and happiness into account. And I believe we must find a secular, or nonreligious, ethics. [...]
    I think the mistake we make is that when we're grown up, we start to think we're independent. We think that in order to be successful we don't need others – except maybe to exploit them! This is the source of all sorts of problems, scandals, and corruption. But if we had more respect for other people's lives – a greater sense of concern and awareness – it would be a very different world. We have to introduce the reality of interdependence. Interview with H.H. 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (*1935) Tibetan monk, leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism, Nobel Peace Prize laureate, 1989, The Ethics of Interdependence, presented by the dissolved US American magazine "What is Enlightenment?", issue 24, February/April 2004

 

  • From my father I inherited the belief that no life was more satisfactory than one of selfless service to your country — or to humanity. This service requires a sacrifice of all personal interests, but likewise the courage to stand up unflinchingly for your convictions concerning what is right and good for the community and to remain independent of fashions in opinions. Radio interview with Dag Hammarskjöld (1905-1961) Swedish diplomat, economist, second Secretary-General of the United Nations (1953-1961), author, presented by the New Yorker radio show "This I believe", April 1953, cited in: Stephan Mögle-Stadel (*1965) German educator, journalist, writer, Dag Hammarskjöld. Vision einer Menschheitsethik, S. 67, Verlag Urachhaus, Stuttgart, 1999

Hammarskjold died on 18. September 1961 in an unexplained plane crash. Shortly after his death, he received the Nobel Peace Prize.

  • My field of operation was hunger. I don't know how many of them there are, but quite certainly I have to answer for destroying more human lives than all the generals and politicians, who have stood trial before tribunals for having committed war crimes. The difference is only, I will never be called on trial.
    During last year [2010] we have robbed 40 million people of their means of existence. It almost happened by default. All, what we have done was punching dotted lines on a computer screen. The costs of staple foods are rising and rising and rising.
    Why is this society not interested in going after people like me and hold them accountable?
    The better you are the quicker these images of hunger crises in the media appear in front of you. In the beginning you refuse to acknowledge them. You work hard, you stomach that your private life is going to the dogs, as this was the case with me. Work is a drug, success hooks. All over sudden all these images on [the situation in] Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenia, Somalia flood your head. And at a single blow you abruptly grasp the connections of the bigger picture. You can switch off the TV, stop reading newspapers, but your conscience will remain alerted.
    Micropsychia, micro-mindedness, egocentricity is a disease which prevents us from seeing the poor. It dwells deep inside the body and poisons everything.
    Today's public view will aggrieve us in the year 2035.
    Margarete Wegener, former German fonds manager of OFT food speculation, chief of 27-50 staff members, Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt, cited in: documentary movie Schuld. Die Barbarei Europas [Guilt. Barbary in Europe], produced by Center for Political Beauty, fall 2011, winner of the German web video prize 2012, translated by EA, YouTube film, minute 0:00, 5:45, 12:28, 14:55 minutes duration, posted 9. December 2011

While attending a conference on OTC swaps and forwards in Toronto former German fonds manager of OFT food speculation and chief of 27-50 staff members, Margarete Wegener, at Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt am Main was haunted by images of hunger at night. Following her conscience she left her criminal profession and made a public confession and moral reversion.

 

  • Sure, if society consisted of valuable individuals only, adaptation would be worthwhile; but in reality it is composed mainly of nincompoops and moral weaklings, and its level is far below that of its better representatives, in addition to which the mass as such stifles all individual values. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a new school of depth psychology, author, Gerhard Adler, editor, Aniela Jaffe, editor, Letters of C. G. Jung. Volume II, 1951-1961, S. 217-221, Princeton University Press, 1. April 1976, Routledge, reissued edition 20. May 1976

 

 

 

  • People have wondered belatedly about the psychology of the German Army-no wonder! Every single soldier and officer was just a particle in the mass, swayed by suggestion and stripped of moral responsibility. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a new school of depth psychology, author, Gerhard Adler, editor, Aniela Jaffe, editor, Letters of C. G. Jung. Volume II, 1951-1961, S. 217-221, Princeton University Press, 1. April 1976, Routledge, reissued edition 20. May 1976

 

  • [I]n order to undergo a far-reaching psychological development, neither outstanding intelligence nor any other talent is necessary, since in this development moral qualities can make up for intellectual shortcomings. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a new school of depth psychology, author, Gerhard Adler, editor,‎ R.F.C. Hull, translator, Two Essays in Analytical Psychology. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Volume 7, paragraph 198, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, Boston, 1953, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, Kindle ebook, 2nd edited edition 1. March 2014

 

  • Where love rules, there is no will to power.
    And where power predominates, there love is lacking.
    The one is the shadow of the other.
    Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a new school of depth psychology, author, source unknown

 

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Definition of ethics

  • Ethics is the art and science of determining good and bad or right and wrong moral behavior which is behavior of serious consequence to human wellbeing and to the environment around us. Video presentation by Wayne Miller, Ph.D., US American director of WVSOM Center for Rural and Community Health, West Virginia, What is Ethics?, YouTube film, minute 2:44, 9:52 minutes duration, posted by WMiller24 20. January 2009

 

  • Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne [...]. The principle of utility recognizes this subjection, and assumes it for the foundation of that system, the object of which is to rear the fabric of felicity by the hands of reason and of law. Systems which attempt to question it, deal in sounds instead of sense, in caprice instead of reason, in darkness instead of light. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) English philosopher, jurist, social reformer, founder of modern utilitarianism, author, The Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1789, Hafner Publishing, New York, 1948

 

  • Some people automatically associate morality and altruism with a religious vision of the world. But I believe it is a mistake to think that morality is an attribute only of religion. We can imagine two types of spirituality:
    • one tied to religion,
    • while the other arises spontaneously in the human heart as an expression of love for our neighbors and a desire to do them good.
H.H. 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (*1935) Tibetan monk, leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism, Nobel Peace Prize laureate, 1989, Facebook comment, 12. May 2011

 

  • What primarily drives human evolution, Darwin wrote in page after page of the long ignored writings that complete his theory, are "the moral qualities." These, he said, are "advanced, either directly or indirectly, much more through the effects of habit, by our reasoning powers, by instruction, by religion, etc., than through natural selection."
    The shift from the emphasis for the first half to the full Darwinian theory and story – and your understanding and involvement – can not only help move us toward the better future. In the long run, it may help save ours and all other species. David Loye, Ph.D. (*1925) US American social psychologist, evolutionary systems-theorist, futurist, partnership researcher, founder of the The Darwin Project, author, The Darwin Project, undated

 

 

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Addressed to school children (and conscience-challenged adults)

  • [A] good moral character is the first essential in a man, and since the habits contracted at your age are generally indelible, and your conduct here may stamp your character through life, it is therefore highly important that you should endeavor not only to be learned but virtuous. George Washington [US Founding Father] (1732-1799) US American dominant military and political leader (1775-1799), presiding co-author of the U.S. Constitution in 1787, first US president (1789-1797), Freemason, letter addressed to Steptoe Washington, 5. December 1790

 

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Patriarchal war on ethics: Reason and the autonomous self ⇔ emotion and relationship

 

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Sensing reality with voice, presence and interrelatedness

 

  • Above all, the prophets remind us of the moral state of a people: Few are guilty, but all are responsible. Abraham Joshua Heschel (1907-1972) Polish-born US American rabbi, leading Jewish theologian and philosopher of the 20th century, The Prophets, S. 19, Harper Collins, New York, 1962

 

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See also:

German nihilist philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche's paraphrased quote: "Reality is that which has the combative vigor to assert itself."

  • The ideal of morality has no more dangerous rival than the ideal of supreme strength, of a life of maximum vigor, which has also been called the ideal of aesthetic greatness. That life is in truth the ultimate attainment of the barbarian, and unfortunately in these days of civilization’s withering it has won a great many adherents. In pursuance of this ideal man becomes a hybrid thing, a brute-spirit, whose cruel mentality exerts a horrible spell upon weaklings. Novalis [Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg] (1772-1801) German philosopher of early German Romanticism, author, cited in: The legacy of Friedrich Nietzsche, presented by the publication The New Criterion, Roger Kimball, Volume 10, S. 28, September 1991

 

  • In a rational universe, organizations and individuals would embrace transparency on both ethical and practical grounds, as the state in which it is easiest to accomplish one's goals. But that is rarely the case. Even as global forces tug us toward greater openness, powerful countervailing forces tend to stymie candor and transparency. Warren Bennis (1925-2014) US American scholar, professor of business administration, organizational consultant, pioneer of contemporary leadership studies, author, Daniel Goleman (*1946) US American psychologist, science journalist, James O'Toole, US American journalist, Patricia Ward Biederman, US American writer, Creating a Transparent Culture, presented by Leader To Leader, No. 50, Fall 2008

 

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Fairness study on altruism, empathy and ethics of chimpanzees, dogs, and elephants

Empathy is expressed via
a) the body channel: as the ability to understand and share the feelings of another and
b) the cognitive channel: as the ability to take the perspective of another.

  • What is morality based on? These are the two factors that always come out:
    1. One is reciprocity, […] a sense of fairness,
    2. and the other one is empathy and compassion.
Video presentation by Frans de Waal, Ph.D. (*1948) Dutch US American Candler professor of psychology and primate behavior, director of Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, biologist, ethologist, speaker, author, Moral behavior in animals, presented by TEDx Talks Peachtree, minute 3:10, 16:52 minutes duration, filmed November 2011, posted April 2012

 

  • The prime moral conflict is not between the individual and his group, but between the partial self of fragmentary impulse and the coordinated self of conscious purpose. There is a group within each man as well as without: a group of partial selves is the reality behind the figment of the unitary self. Every individual is a society, every person is a crowd. And the tragedies of the moral life lie not in the war of each against all, but in the restless interplay of these partial selves behind the stage of action. As a man’s intelligence grows this conflict diminishes, for both means and ends, both behavior and purposes, are being continually revised and redirected in accordance with intelligence, and therefore in convergence towards it. Progressively the individual achieves unity, and through unity, personality. Faith in himself has made him whole. The ethical problem, so far as it is the purely individual problem of attaining to coordinated personality, is solved. Moral responsibility, then, whatever social responsibility may be, is the responsibility of the individual to himself. The social is not necessarily the moral – let the sociological fact be what it will. The unthinking conformity of the "normal social life" is, just because it is unthinking, below the level of morality: let us call it sociality, and make morality the prerogative of the really thinking animal. Will Durant (1885-1981) US American historian, philosopher, writer (on behalf of the Rockefeller Foundation), Philosophy and the Social Problem, The Macmillan Company, 1917

 

 

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Aristippus' hedonism ⇔ Aristotle's eudaimonism

Cultural brain ⇔ moral immune system

  • In the classical Greek philosophy dating back more than 2,300 years Aristippus (435-356 BC) proposed that the pursuit of pleasure should be the goal in life. Thus he is mostly associated with hedonist philosophy. In contrast, Aristotle (384-322 BC) viewed Aristippus's hedonism as crass and lacking meaning. The debate continues to this day, but cultural psychoneuroimmunology [state-of-the-art mindbody science] offers very credible evidence that, when related to healthy living, Aristotle won the argument. There's a coordinated immune system reaction to stress called conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). When activated, it involves expression of genes that trigger inflammation as well as reduce antibody and antiviral strength, making you more vulnerable to disease. Studies show that people who lead a life based on the pursuit of hedonic pleasure (mostly seeking gratification of the senses) have higher levels of CTRA than people who engage in meaningful conduct that gives them pleasure (eudaimonic). Finding pleasure in acts of generosity, civic mindedness, social bonding, and sharing knowledge is significantly better for your health than pleasure for its own sake.
    In addition to owning a cultural brain, we function with an immune system that has morals – but not self-righteous intolerance that assumes exclusive ownership of ethics. In fact, rigid morality void of compassion is not good for your health. Mario Martinez, PsyD, Uruguaian clinical neuropsychologist, contemplative psychologist, psycho-neuroimmunologist, author, The MindBody Self. How Longevity Is Culturally Learned and the Causes of Health Are Inherited, S. 162, Hay House Publishing, 1st edition 21. March 2017

 

  • If lawyers had followed the norm of no execution without trial,
    if doctors had accepted the rule of no surgery without consent,
    if businessmen had endorsed the prohibition of slavery,
    if bureaucrats had refused to handle paperwork involving murder,
    then the Nazi regime would have been much harder pressed to carry out the atrocities by which we remember it. Professions can create forms of ethical conversation that are impossible between a lonely individual and a distant government. If members of professions think of themselves as groups with common interests, with norms and rules that oblige them at all times, then they can gain confidence and indeed a certain kind of power. Professional ethics must guide us precisely when we are told that the situation is exceptional. Then there is no such thing as 'just following orders.' If members of the professions confuse their specific ethics with the emotions of the moment, however, they can find themselves saying and doing things that they might previously have thought unimaginable. Timothy Snyder (*1969) US American historian specializing in the history of Europe and the Holocaust, author, On Tyranny. Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century, Bodley Head, 2. March 2017

 

  • We have in fact, two kinds of morality, side by side: one which we preach, but do not practice, and another which we practice, but seldom preach.   Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) British philosopher, social critic, logician, mathematician, historian, social reformist, "pacifist", member of the Royal Society, Nobel laureate in literature, 1950, Sceptical Essays, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1928, Routledge Classics, Psychology Press, 2004

Quotes by David R. Hawkins

⚠ Caveat See Power vs. Truth, January 2013

  • It is very immature to expect others to live up to one’s own standards or ideals. Let us not overlook that
    • the majority of people have no reason other than to ‘take what they can get’. Seventy-eight percent of the people on the planet calibrate below the level of Integrity at 200.
    • They are not committed to spiritual truth, which to them is fiction or idealistic nonsense.
    • Fairness, consideration, honesty, and ethics do not prevail at consciousness levels below 200. When they do, it is the exception rather than the rule.

 


 

 

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Standing up for truth requires a principled character.

  • Spirituality means to stand up for truth. It doesn't mean to passively lie down and allow yourself to become the victim and think that you are pious and holy with all that. Piety and holyness means also to stand for the truth. Truth is also strength, strength and commitment. […] It's up to your wisdom how and when to express it, but nevertheless we stand for that in which we believe in. Otherwise we are people without principles. Without principles one is weak and easy to knock over. The value of mores and spiritual principles, religious principles, logic, reason is it gives you a strength at your character. In times of great stress that's when you are going to need that character. When you need it it's there because it's habitual. Dr. David R. Hawkins, Sedona Seminar Transcending Obstacles, lecture 7, 3 DVD set, 3. September 2005 – Standing for the truth – Spirituality vs passivity, YouTube film, 1:11 minutes duration, posted 8. May 2011

 

  • Ethical means you live up to your own standards to the best of your ability. It also means with the flexibility that you will not succeed every time. Forgive yourself: "I wasn't at my best". Dr. David R. Hawkins, Prescott Seminar What is the World?, 3 DVD set, 28. February 2009

Englische Texte – English section on Morality

Six pillars of morality – Jonathan Haidt

The former associate professor of Positive Psychology at University of Virginia Jonathan Haidt was the winner of the
Templeton Prize in Positive Psychology in 2001 and the winner of the Virginia "Outstanding Faculty Award" in 2004.
Building on the work of cultural anthropologist Richard Shweder, the results of a survey via a questionnaire
completed by 23.000 Americans
were published in his book The Happiness Hypothesis.
Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom
, Perseus Books, 1st edition 31. October 2005
Six foundations of ethics and morality
Jonathan Haidt and Craig Joseph
PillarFocusEthical values
and their antagonists
LegendPolitical orientations/tendencies /
U.S. parties
1. Community Care HarmCherishing and protecting others70% interest Liberals Conservatives
2. Community Fairness
Proportionality
Reciprocity
CheatingRendering justice according to shared rules30% interest Liberals Conservatives
3. Community Liberty⇔·OppressionLoathing of Rankismus/tyranny  Liberals Conservatives
4. Family Loyalty
Ingroup
SubversionStanding with your group, family, nationTribal psychology N/A Conservatives
5. Family Authority
Respect
BetrayalObeying tradition and legitimate authority  N/A Conservatives
6. Religion Purity
Sanctity
Inviolability
Humiliation
   Degradation
Abhorrence for disgusting things, foods, actions  N/A Conservatives
References featuring Jonathan Haidt, Ph.D. (*1963) US American professor of social, cultural and moral psychology and
ethical leadership, New York University Stern School of Business, author
Video TV interview Jonathan Haidt Explains Our Contentious Culture, presented by the US American TV show Moyers & Company,
     host Bill Moyers (*1934) US American political commentator, journalist, YouTube film, 47:09 minutes duration, posted by
     TheEthanwashere 13. June 2012
Followup book: The Righteous Mind. Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion, righteousmind.com, Pantheon,
     1st edition 13. March 2012, reprint edition 12. February 2013
Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Moral Foundations Theory
See also: ► Culture and ► Control and ► Politics
Siehe auch: ► Sechs Säulen der Ethik – Jonathan Haidt

 

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Religious conservatives are happier.

  • "It doesn't matter who is in the White House. Conservative, religious people are happier. Conservatives participate in denser, more binding structures." Video presentation by Jonathan Haidt, Ph.D. (*1963) US American professor of social, cultural and moral psychology and ethical leadership, New York University Stern School of Business, author, Morality im 2012, location at the "2012: Stories from the Near Future" conference, sponsored by the US American magazine The New Yorker, host Henry Finder, 31:27 minutes duration, released 26. February 2009   Discussing the five (six) foundations of morality

Human moral development – Lawrence Kohlberg

Step model of human moral development
༺༻LevelStageAgeOrientationFocusLegend
1 Pre-conventional1Age 0-9
Some youngsters
Some teen/adult criminals
Obedience and
punishment
How can I avoid punishment? 
1 Pre-conventional2Age 0-9
Some youngsters
Some teen/adult criminals
Self-interest What's in it for me?Paying for a benefit
Moral relativism
2 Conventional3Most of the teenagers
Most of the adults
Conformity and interpersonal accord Social normsGood boy/girl attitude
2 Conventional4Most of the teenagers
Most of the adults
Maintaining authority
and social-order
Law and order
morality
 
2+ Transition4 1/2Age 18-20 Arbitrariness of nature
of law and order
reasoning
Setback stage 
3 Post•conventional5Past age 20
25% of the adult population
Human rights and
Social contract
  
3 Post-conventional6Past age 20
25% of the adult population
Universal human
ethical principles
Principled conscience 
Originator: ► Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) US American professor of psychology best known for
his theory of stages of moral development, University of Chicago
Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Stages of Moral Development
See also:
Evolutionary models of integral thought leaders – Maturing the ego
Pyramid of needs – Abraham Maslow
Step models and ► Conscience and ► Relativism

Stages of moral development – Lawrence Kohlberg (Heinz's dilemma)

Moral development of Heinz faced with a dilemma
StageMoral focusLegend
1. Obedience Heinz should not steal the medicine because he will consequently be put in prison which will mean
he is a bad person.

Or: Heinz should steal the medicine because it is only worth $200 and not how much the druggist
wanted for it; Heinz had even offered to pay for it and was not stealing anything else.
2. Self-interest Heinz should steal the medicine because he will be much happier if he saves his wife, even if he
will have to serve a prison sentence.

Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because prison is an awful place, and he would probably languish over a jail cell more than his wife's death.
3. Conformity Heinz should steal the medicine because his wife expects it; he wants to be a good husband.
Or: Heinz should not steal the drug because stealing is bad and he is not a criminal; he tried to do
everything he could without breaking the law, you cannot blame him.
4. Law-and-order Heinz should not steal the medicine because the law prohibits stealing, making it illegal.
Or: Heinz should steal the drug for his wife but also take the prescribed punishment for the crime
as well as paying the druggist what he is owed. Criminals cannot just run around without regard
for the law; actions have consequences.
5. Human rights Heinz should steal the medicine because everyone has a right to choose life, regardless of the law.
Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because the scientist has a right to fair compensation.
Even if his wife is sick, it does not make his actions right.
6. Universal
human ethics
Heinz should steal the medicine, because saving a human life is a more fundamental value than the property rights of another person.
Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine, because others may need the medicine just as badly.
Video references:
► Video presentation by professor Miller, WMiller25, Kohlberg's stages of moral development, YouTube film,
     9:25 minutes duration, posted 28. March 2008
Brief description of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development
► Video presentation Kohlberg Stages of Moral Reasoning, YouTube film, 5:42 minutes duration, posted 26. May 2009
Reference: ► Note by D. Davis, US American emeritus professor of psychology, Haverford College,
University of Minnesota, Kohlberg Dilemmas, presented by Haverford College, undated

Moral development with women and men – Carol Gilligan

The US American professor of gender studies Carol Gilligan (*1936) is a former student of the psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, best known for his theory of stages of moral development. She discovered that people faced with an emergency situation will be approached gender-specifically:
       ⚑  Women focus more on the framework of relationships, interactions and responsibilities.
       ⚑  Men focus more on abstract rights and duties.
Basically, the masculine ethics of justice and the feminine ethics of care are structurally equal.

 

Both women and men develop hierarchically.
Women by nature do not think hierarchically, however they develop in hierarchical ways.
      ⚑   Women engage in a connectional and binding manner.
      ⚑   Men tend to think autonomously, are action oriented and prefer ranked order.

 

Four moral developmental stages
Feminine ethics of care      ⇔       Masculine ethics of justice
༺༻LevelStageEthics of care
Phoenix process
Ethics of justice
Sense of duty
Key phrase
1. Egocentric Pre-conventionalSelfish
Caring
Selfish
Just/dutyful
I love myself.
2. Ethnocentric Pre-conventionalTribal
Caring
Tribal
Just/dutyful
I love you.
3.  Worldcentric ConventionalUniversal
Caring
Universal
Just/dutyful
I love you more than me.
4. Cosmocentric-integral Post-conventionalIntegrated
Caring
Integrated
Just/dutyful
I love myself and you.
Video references:
► Video interview clips with Carol Gilligan, Ph.D. webster.edu (*1936) US American professor of gender studies, psychologist, feminist,
     ethicist (community, relationships), writer, Women and Moral Development, presented by the US American web portal Big Think,
     6:29 minutes duration, recorded ~2008, 24. January 2012
► Educative video Gilligan – Theory of Women's Moral Development, presented by The College Student, Emily Abrams and Julia Smith,
     issued 20. October 2014, YouTube film, 5:54 minutes duration, posted 13. October 2014
► Educative video Carol Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development, presented by the Educational Portal, narrated by Melissa Hurst, Ph.D.,
     YouTube film, 7:00 minutes duration, posted 18. July 2016
Literature:
Carol Gilligan, Ph.D. webster.edu (*1936) US American professor of gender studies, psychologist, feminist, ethicist concerned with
     issues of community and relationship, writer, In a Different Voice. Psychological Theory and Women's Development, 1982,
     Harvard University Press, revised edition 1. July 1993    
Recension: "...the little book that started a revolution"
Reference: ► Notes on In a Different Voice by Carol Gilligan, presented by Allen Cypher, undated
See also: ► Step models and ► Women / Women and ► Men and ► Justice and ► Wholeness and ► Phoenix

Shame ethics ↔ guilt ethics – James Gilligan

Two cultures of shame ⇔ guilt – Red and blue parties in the United States
PartyCulture
Ethics
Ethos
scope
Judgment of the
other party's ethics
Central commandmentMissing
culture
Republican·Party Shame and honor culture
Shame ethics
Honor / pride
Shame, dishonor
Self-humiliation Thou shalt kill
the projected enemy image.
Dignity
Democratic PartyGuilt culture
Guilt ethics
Altruism, humility
Harming others, pride1
[Barbarism, cruelty] 'Thou shalt not kill.'Dignity
Literature:
James Gilligan, M.D., Ph.D., US American psychiatrist, violence expert, author, Why Some Politicians Are More Dangerous Than Others,
     Polity, 1st edition 2. August 2011
Reference:
Avi Tuschman, Ph.D., US American professor of evolutionary and political anthropology, Stanford University, senior writer to Peruvian
     president Alejandro Toledo (2001-2006), Our Political Nature. The Evolutionary Origins of What Divides Us, Prometheus Books,
     3. September 2013
Political orientations (left-right voting) arise from three clusters of measurable personality traits i.e. opposing attitudes toward
(1) tribalism: ethnocentricity vs. ethnophilia, in-grouping vs. individualism
(2) human nature: competitiveness vs. cooperation, (fundamentalist) religiosity vs. secularism,
(3) tolerance of inequality: rankism, sexism, racism, classism.
Conservatives are more rankist, sexist, racist, and homophobic religious than liberals.
See also:
Politics of poverty and violence – Pride-guilt-shame culture of socio-economic status in the United States
Three historic periods of human development including two normative turning points – Evelin Lindner
Seven deadly sins ⇔ Seven heavenly virtues

 

The Republican politician Newt Gingrich said recently that the two political parties [in US] represent different cultures. [...] I think he was right about that, they do represent different cultures. I would describe the Republican Party as representing what anthropologists have called a shame culture or a shame and honor culture where the moral ethos from the highest good to the worst evil goes from honor to shame.
And the Democratic Party represents a guilt culture in which the worst evil is to be guilty of the sin of harming somebody else and the highest good is to be innocent. And that often implies being selfless, altruistic and demonstrating humility which to a shame culture would be seen as self-humiliation. These are cultures within opposite ethos. The ethos is a diametrically opposite moral value system. I've divided these into what I call a shame ethic versus a guilt ethic. In a shame ethic the highest good is pride and the worst evil is shame or dishonor. Pride and honor go together, shame and dishonor go together. In a guilt ethic pride instead to being the highest good is the worst evil. In the Christian guilt ethic it's called the deadliest of the seven deadly sins. The highest good is humility which would look like self-humiliation to a shame ethic. [...] [O]ne of the most fundamental moral commandments in the guilt ethic is 'Thou shalt not kill.' One of the most powerful moral commandments and in a shame ethic is 'Thou shalt kill'. That is their many well-recognized circumstances in which if you don't kill you can be killed yourself as somebody who is a deserter from the Army for example. If you refuse to go out and kill members of somebody else's army you can be shot and killed yourself or shamed as being called a sissy, a coward and so on. In the days of dueling you would be shamed if you didn't fight a duel when you were dishonored by somebody.
Video presentation by James Gilligan, Ph.D., US American psychiatrist, violence expert, author, Why Some Politicians Are More Dangerous Than Others, presented by Institute of Art and Ideas (IAI), YouTube film, minute 22:33, 27:32 minutes duration, posted by IAITV 19. July 2013

Native American code of ethics

Twenty recommendations for a virtuous life
༺༻Key areaVirtuous habit
1.Prayer Rise with the sun to pray. Pray alone. Pray often. The Great Spirit will listen, if you only speak.
2.Guidance Be tolerant of those who are lost on their path. Ignorance, conceit, anger, jealousy and greed stem
from a lost soul. Pray that they will find guidance
3.Uniqueness Search for yourself, by yourself. Do not allow others to make your path for you. It is your road,
and yours alone. Others may walk it with you, but no one can walk it for you.
4.Hospitalitity Treat the guests in your home with much consideration. Serve them the best food, give them the
best bed and treat them with respect and honor.
5.No theft Do not take what is not yours whether from a person, a community, the wilderness or from a culture.
If it was not earned or given, it is not yours.
6.Respect Respect all things that are placed upon this earth – whether it be people or plant.
7.Yielding Honor other people's thoughts, wishes and words. Never interrupt another or mock or rudely mimic them.
Allow each person the right to personal expression.
8.Avoid·negativity Never speak of others in a bad way. The negative energy that you put out into the universe will multiply
when it returns to you.
9.Forgiveness All persons make mistakes. And all mistakes can be forgiven.
10.Optimism Bad thoughts cause illness of the mind, body and spirit. Practice optimism.
11.Holism Nature is not FOR us, it is a PART of us. They are part of your worldly family.
12.Education Children are the seeds of our future. Plant love in their hearts and water them with wisdom and life's lessons. When they are grown, give them space to grow.
13.Kindness Avoid hurting the hearts of others. The poison of your pain will return to you.
14.Honesty Be truthful at all times. Honesty is the test of one's will.
15.Balance Keep yourself balanced. Your Mental self, Spiritual self, Emotional self, and Physical self – all need to be strong, pure and healthy. Work out the body to strengthen the mind. Grow rich in spirit to cure emotional ails.
16.Accountability Make conscious decisions as to who you will be and how you will react. Be responsible for your own actions.
17.Respect Respect the privacy and personal space of others. Do not touch the personal property of others –
especially sacred and religious objects. This is forbidden.
18.Authenticity Be true to yourself first. You cannot nurture and help others if you cannot nurture and help yourself first.
19.Tolerance Respect others religious beliefs. Do not force your belief on others.
20.Sharing Share your good fortune with others. Participate in charity.
Reference: ► Unnamed article on Sioux legends, originally presented ed by newspaper Inter-Tribal Times, October 1994

 

Links zum Thema Ethik und Moral / Morality

Literatur

Literature (engl.)

Externe Weblinks


Taleb, der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung mit antiker Philosophie verbindet, fordert die Rückkehr zur traditionellen Weisheit
. Er klagt er all jene unmoralischen Politiker, Trader und Intellektuellen an, die für Entscheidungen kein Risiko eingehen.


Linklose Artikel

  • Artikel Moral im Wandel: Das Dilemma der Ethik in einer außer Kontrolle geratenen Welt, präsentiert von dem deutschen Magazin Was ist Erleuchtung?, Elizabeth Debold, Ed.D., US-amerikanische Genderforscherin, Lehrerin, Chefredakteurin des aufgelösten Magazins WIE / EnlightenNext (2006-2011), Kulturkommentatorin, Autorin, Ausgabe 12, ~2004

External web links (engl.)



Linkless articles

  • Interview with H.H. 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (*1935) Tibetan monk, leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism, Nobel Peace Prize laureate, 1989, The Ethics of Interdependence, presented by the dissolved US American magazine "What is Enlightenment?", issue 24, February/April 2004
  • Article Shifting Moral Ground. The Dilemma of Ethics in an Out-of-Control World, presented by the dissolved US American magazine "What is Enlightenment?", Elizabeth Debold, Ed.D., US American gender researcher, senior teacher of evolutionary enlightenment, cultural commentator, senior editor of the dissolved magazine WIE / EnlightenNext (2002-2011), author, issue 24, February/April 2004

Audio- und Videolinks

Das menschliche Leben wird immer mehr von selbstlernenden Computern bestimmt. Nach welchen menschlich vorherbestimmten Regeln handeln die Algorithmen? Der Markt entscheidet, welche Algorithmen sich durchsetzen. Deep Learning Computer schlagen Go-Spieler.

Audio and video links (engl.)

Discussing the five (six) foundations of morality

  • Video presentation by Malcolm Gladwell, CM (*1963) Canadian historian, sociologist, civil engineering professor emeritus, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, business consultant, speaker, journalist, staff writer with magazine New Yorker, since 1996, author, Genius: 2012, location "2012: Stories from the Near Future" conference, sponsored by the US American magazine The New Yorker, introduced by David Remnick, host Henry Finder, 7. May 2007

Discussing the importance of stubbornness and collaboration in problem-solving, the 10,000 hours of practice to master any challenge, example given by role model Andrew Wiles

Brief description of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development

Short Intro to ethics and business ethics

Emphasizing the importance of compassion

Definition of virtue, discussion on how to live life with moral intelligence



Linkless media offerings

  • Video lecture by Carol Gilligan, Ph.D. webster.edu (*1936) US American professor of gender studies, psychologist, feminist, ethicist (community, relationships), writer, Voice and Relationship. Rethinking the Foundations of Ethics. Ethics across the curriculum, presented by University of San Diego, 30. January 1997
  • Video keynote speech by John Renesch, US American businessman-turned futurist, economy philosopher, system thinker, author, Ethos – Challenging our ways of thinking about Work, Leadership and the Future, presented by Global Dialogue Center, location "International Conference for Business and Social Responsibility", sponsored by "Ethos Institute Brazil", 2006, 9:04 minutes duration, posted 8. November 2007

Reflecting on leadership and the future

 

Interne Links

Englisch Wiki

Hawkins

 

 

1 Seven deadly sins ⇔ Seven heavenly virtues

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08.11.2018 um 08:20 Uhr

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