SpiritualWiki

Wiki / Myers-BriggsTypologie

Wiki-Menu:  

2·2012


Hawkins-Menu:


 

Myers-Briggs TypologieTemperamentenlehre

 

 

 

Osterglocken


 

Eigenschaften der vier Temperamente

Vier Fragen von den vier Temperamenten
༺༻VerhaltenFrageTemperamentEnneagramtyp
1.Die Feigheit fragt: Ist es sicher?PhlegmatikerTyp #9
2.Die Zweckmäßigkeit fragt: Ist es politisch klug?CholerikerTyp #8
3.Die Eitelkeit fragt: Ist es zugkräftig?SanguinikerTyp #7
4.Das Gewissen jedoch fragt: Ist es richtig?MelancholikerTyp #1
Und es wird die Zeit kommen, da man eine Stellung beziehen muss, die weder sicher noch gefällig
noch breitenwirksam ist. Wenn dieser Fall eintritt, muss man es tun, weil es richtig ist.
Quelle: ► Rede von Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) US-amerikanischer Baptistenpastor, Aktivist, afro-amerikanischer Bürgerrechtler, Friedensnobelpreisträger, 1964, Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution [Wach bleiben während der Großen Revolution], National Cathedral, Washington, DC, 31. März 1968, Kongress-Abschrift, 9. April 1968

 

Unterscheidungsmerkmale der vier Temperamente
❄ ❄ ❄     Choleriker          Sanguiniker          Phlegmatiker          Melancholiker     
Motto "Erledige es." "Amüsiere dich." "Sei nett zu anderen." "Mach's richtig."
Eigenschaften Entschlossen, schnell, handlungsfreudig, feurig, energisch, leidenschaftlich
Rationaler Realist
Zweckmäßigkeit
Warmherzig, kontaktfreudig, wankelmütig, optimistisch, fröhlich
Kunsthandwerker
Eitelkeit
Langsam, geduldig, ruhig, still, schüchtern, rational, verlässlich, konsequent
Idealist
Feigheit
Ernsthaft, ruhig, traurig, deprimiert, ängstlich, vorausahnend, poetisch, künstlerisch
Beschützer
Gewissen
Orientierung Extravertiert
Aufgabenorientiert
Kontaktfreudig
Extravertiert
Menschenorientiert
Kontaktfreudig
Introvertiert
Menschenorientiert
Reserviert
Introvertiert
Aufgabenorientiert
Reserviert
Element FEUER LUFT WASSER ERDE
Jahreszeit Sommer Frühling Winter Herbst
Körpersaft Gelbe Gallenflüssigkeit (Rotes) Blut (Weißer) Schleim Schwarze Gallenflüssigkeit
Prominente Julius Caesar, Nero, Margret Thatcher, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey,
Bill O'Reilly
Papst Franziskus, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, Barack Obama, Ursula K. LeGuin,
Simon Sinek
Mahatma Gandhi,
Prinzessin Diana, Nelson Mandela, Dalai Lama, Michael Jackson
Sokrates, Marie Curie, Vincent
van Gogh, Carl Gustav Jung, Albert Einstein, Jordan Peterson, Morgan Freeman

 

Hinweise für den erquicklichen Umgang mit den vier Temperamenten
     Choleriker          Sanguiniker          Phlegmatiker          Melancholiker     
Ehre den Realisten Genieße den Entertainer Respektiere den Beobachter Würdige den Idealisten
Rechne damit, dass sie darauf drängen, es sofort zu tun Lasse ihnen den Spaß Bedenke, sie sind
nett zu anderen
Berücksichtige, dass sie darauf bestehen, es richtig zu machen
Fasse dich kurz Sei anregend Sei umgänglich, unkompliziert Sei breitgefächert,
spezifisch und genau
Fordere sie heraus, necke sie Sei optimistisch Sei geduldig Offeriere verschiedene Blickwinkel
Hinterfrage den Macher Sei freundlich Sei wertschätzend Beschäftige den Aufrüttler
Gib direkte Antworten Verteile Streicheleinheiten Gib viel Vorlaufzeit Stelle vertiefende Fragen
Liefere nur Höhepunkte Lasse sie reden Präsentiere Veränderungen
auf nicht-bedrohliche Weise
Warte mit verschiedenen Erklärungen auf; versichere ihnen, sie nicht zu überrumpeln
Erspare ihnen den Kleinkram Lass die Kleinigkeiten beiseite Definiere die Rollen klar und eindeutig Liefere Details
Verwende Übersichten und Grafiken
Poche auf Ergebnisse Halte die Details schriftlich fest Unterstütze sie Weise auf Synchronizitäten hin
Füge die Einzelteile zusammen
Komme zur Sache Biete Anreize Beschwichtige ihre Angst Erlaube Tiefgang und Weitsicht
Gehe logisch vor Verweise auf Expertenmeinungen Lass sie es herausfinden Lass das Gesamtbild offenbar werden
Betone das Was, wann Betone das Wer Betone das Wie, wann Betone das Warum

 

Referenz: de.Wikipedia-Eintrag Temperamentenlehre
Siehe auch: ► Gewissen
See also:
Characteristics of the four temperaments
Four temperaments and their correspondences
Fourfold nature of the psyche and various fourfold constellations

Vier Temperamente und deren Grundformen der Angst

Gegenüberstellung von Enneagramm/Persönlichkeitstypen
mit Jungschen Typen und Angsttypen
E-TypPersönlichkeitstyp
Enneagrammtyp
Temperament
Landestyp
Jungsche TypologieAngst vor[*]Erlebt alsFokusHerzenswunsch Motto
#8 Hysterischer
Kontroletti
Extravertiert · labil
Choleriker
Unterwerfungs-
land
Slytherin
Intuition Notwen-
digkeit
Endgültigkeit
Unfreiheit
Wechsel Anerkennung
Status
"Erledige es."
#1 Zwanghafter
Perfektionist
Introvertiert · labil
Melancholiker
Perfekt-Land Ravenclaw
Empfindung Wandlung Vergänglichkeit
Unsicherheit
Dauer Sensitivität
Mitgefühl
"Mach's richtig."
#7 Schizoider
Spaßmacher
Extravertiert · stabil
Sanguiniker
Vergnügungspark Gryffindor
Denken Selbst-
hingabe
Ich-Verlust
Abhängigkeit
Nähe Aufmerk-
samkeit

Leutseligkeit
"Vergnüge dich."
#9 Depressiver
Friedensstifter
Introvertiert · stabil
Phlegmatiker
Friedensland Hufflepuff
Fühlen Selbst-
werdung
Ungeborgenheit
Isolierung
Distanz Respekt
Bequeme Sicherheit
"Sei nett zu anderen."
[*]Der Psychoanalytiker Psychologe, Psychotherapeut, Astrologe und Autor Fritz Riemann (1902-1979)
befasste sich in einer tiefenpsychologischen Studie mit den vier Grundformen der Angst.

 


Vier Temperamente, Hauswand in Frankfurt am Main

 

Das Erwachsen-Werden und das Reifen gehen einher mit der Überwindung von Angst und Scham.

 

Der deutsch-britische Professor für Psychologie Prof. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) entwickelte ein
faktorentheoretisches Persönlichkeitssystem, wonach die Persönlichkeit jedes Individuums das Resultat der
Ausprägung der Dimensionen Introversion-Extraversion und Labilität-Stabilität ist.
Der hysterische Choleriker ist extravertiert und labil (EL).Fühlender labiler Extravertierter (Empfindungstyp)
Der zwanghafte Melancholiker ist introvertiert und labil (IL).Fühlender labiler Introvertierter (Intuitiver Typ)
Der schizoide Sanguiniker ist extravertiert und stabil (ES).Denkender stabiler Extravertierter
Der depressive Phlegmatiker ist introvertiert und stabil (IS).Fühlender stabiler Introvertierter

 

Der Schizoide (Sanguiniker) ahnt die Liebesfähigkeit des Depressiven (Phlegmatikers).
Der Depressive schätzt den Mut des Schizoiden, seine Aspirationen zu leben, woran er sich selbst nicht wagt.
Zwanghafte (Melancholiker) und hysterische Persönlichkeiten (Choleriker) sind in ähnlicher Weise ein schicksalhaftes Paar.
Falls die Bereitschaft zur Erkenntnis und Reifung nicht beidseitig vorhanden ist,
stoßen sich Gegensatzpaare schließlich ab.

 

Extravertierte (Choleriker und Sanguiniker) haben eine erhöhte Erregungsschwelle des aufsteigenden retikulären Aktivierungssystems (ARAS) des Gehirns. Verbunden mit hemmenden Impulsen des Gehirns (Formatio reticularis) sind sie vermindert erregbar durch die Umwelt.
Introvertierte (Melancholiker und Phlegmatiker) sind chronisch reizüberflutet. Nach Eysenck sind sie aufgrund ihres höheren Erregungspotentials leichter konditionierbar als Extravertierte.

 

Referenzen:
► Eintrag Element, präsentiert von Astrowiki, undatiert
► Artikel von Werner Stangl, Fritz Riemanns "Grundformen der Angst", präsentiert von Werner Stangls Arbeitsblätter, undatiert
Reference: ► Article by Gregory Mitchell, Carl Jung & Jungian Analytical Psychology, presented by mind-development.eu, 2005-2015
Siehe auch: ► Angst und ► Typische Merkmale der Enneagrammtypen 1-9
See also:
Four temperaments and their correspondences
Keywords, traits, vices, virtues of the nine personality types
Four major biological love types – Helen Fisher

Vier Temperamente korreliert mit Elementen, Eigenschaften, Wesen und Körpern

Übersicht: Temperamente • Elemente • Richtungen • Körper • Eigenschaften
Tierkreiszeichen • Engel • Elementarwesen
TemperamentElementHimmels-
richtung
Eigenschaft
Aristoteles
Regelmäßiger
Körper
Platon
Tierkreiszeichen
Astrologie
ErzengelElementar-
wesen
Paracelsus
Cholerisch Feuer SüdenWarm+trockenHeiß TetraederWidder, Löwe, Schütze Michael Salamander
Melancholisch Erde NordenKalt+trockenSchwer WürfelStier, Jungfrau, Steinbock Uriel Gnom
Sanguinisch Luft OstenWarm+feuchtHell OktaederZwillinge, Waage, Wassermann Raphael Sylphe
Phlegmatisch Wasser WestenKalt+feuchtWeich IkosaederKrebs, Skorpion, Fische Gabriel Undine
Referenz: de.Wikipedia-Eintrag Vier-Elemente-Lehre
Referenz-Literatur:
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Schweizer Psychiater, Psychoanalytiker, Gründer einer neuen Denkschule der analytischen Tiefenpsychologie,
     Autor, Karl Kerényi (1897-1973) ungarischer Klassischer Philologe, Religionswissenschaftler, Einführung in das Wesen der Mythologie,
     Rascher, Zürich, 1941, Pantheon, Amsterdam, 1941, Patmos Verlag, 1999
► Ulrich Stoll, Gundolf Keil, Autor, Herausgeber, Paul Schnitzer, Herausgeber, Josef Domes, Herausgeber, Das Lorscher Arzneibuch und die
     frühmittelalterliche Medizin. Verhandlungen des Medizinhistorischen Symposiums im September 1989 in Lorsch
, Laurissa, Lorsch, 1991,
     Steiner, Stuttgart, 1992 – Referenz: Umfangreiche medizinische Handschrift aus der Zeit Karls des Großen zur Klostermedizin aus dem
     abendländischen Frühmittelalter Lorscher Arzneibuch, ~785
► Gernot Böhme, Hartmut Böhme,
Feuer, Wasser, Luft, Erde. Eine Kulturgeschichte der Elemente, C.H. Beck, München, 1996,
     1. Auflage 19. Februar 2004
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Schweizer Psychiater, Psychoanalytiker, Gründer einer neuen Denkschule der analytischen Tiefenpsychologie,
     Autor, Lorenz Jung, Herausgeber,
Archetypen, 1997, Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag (dtv), 1. Auflage 1. Januar 2001
► Bernhard D. Haage, Wolfgang Wegner,
Medizin in der griechischen und römischen Antike, Springer Lehrbuch, Berlin Heidelberg, 2013,
     zitiert in: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner, Herausgeber,
Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte'',
     S. 915-920; hier S. 916, De Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 1. Auflage 15. November 2004
Siehe auch: ► Vier Elemente
See also: ► Four temperaments correlated with elements, qualities, beings and solids

Kurzdarstellung von verwandten Vierer-Typologien

Keirsey: TEMPERAMENT bestimmt die Neigung zur Lebensführung – CHARAKTER die Lebensgewohnheiten.
Die Eigenschaften des Temperaments sind vordisponiert, der Charakter beschreibt die verliehenen Merkmale.
Das Temperament entspricht der Computer-Hardware und der Charakter der Computer-Software.
ErfinderJahrLUFTWASSERERDEFEUER
Aristoteles325v.Chr.HedonistEigentümerMoralistDialektiker
Platon340v.Chr.KunsthandwerkerBeschützerIdealistRationalist
Galenus190SanguinikerPhlegmatikerMelancholikerCholeriker
E. Ponticus
Enneagramm 1
~380 Typ 7
Wendiger Träumer
Typ 9
Gutherziger Friedensstifter
Typ 1
Prinzipientreuer Lehrer
Typ 8
Großmütiger Held
Paracelsus1550WandelbarFleißigInspiriertWissbegierig
Adickes1905InnovativTraditionellDoktrinärSkeptisch
Spranger1914ÄsthetischÖkonomischReligiösTheoretisch
Kretschmer1920HyperaktivDepressivHypersensibelEmpfindungslos
Jung
Quaternität
1921DenkenFühlenIntuierenEmpfinden
Eysenck21970Schizoid
Extravertiert, stabil
Depressiv
Introvertiert, stabil
Zwanghaft
Introvertiert, labil
Hysterisch
Extravertiert, labil
Marston DISG31928Initiativ
Extravertiert-menschennah
Stetig
Introvertiert-menschennah
Gewissenhaft
Introvertiert-sachorientiert
Dominant
Extravertiert-sachorientiert
Fromm1947AusbeutendHortendEmpfänglichVermarktend
Myers1958ErforschendPlanendFreundlichDenkend
Keirsey1978SP[35-40% Anteil]
Sensorisches Wahrnehmen
SJ[40-45% Anteil]
Sensorisches Urteilen
NF[10% Anteil]
Intuitives Fühlen
NT[7% Anteil]
Intuitives Denken
Helen Fisher2009Abenteurer[38%]
Forscher
Unternehmer[19%]
Schaffender
Diplomat[30%]
Verhandler
Direktor[13%]
Wegbereiter
Luís Amaral
Northwestern University4/5
2018Durchschnittsmensch Mehrheit, mehr Frauen
Neurotisch(+)
Extravertiert(+) Offen(-)
Zurückhaltender
Extravertiert(-) Neurotisch(-) Umgänglich(+) Gewissenhaft(+)
Vorbild >Frauen/Ältere
Neurotisch(-) Extravertiert(+) Offen(+) Umgänglich(+)
Gewissenhaft(+)
Egozentriker <20Jahre
Extravertiert(++) Offen(-) Umgänglich(-) Gewissenhaft(-)
Referenz: de.Wikipedia-Eintrag Keirsey Temperament Sorter
Siehe auch:
Quaternität – Vierheit und das I Ging
Vier Persönlichkeitstypen in der Liebesbeziehung
Metamorphosen über vier Stationen – 3:1

 

Irrationalität ist eine Untugend des Denkens und Fühlens, Rationalität eine Untugend des Empfindens und Intuierens. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Schweizer Psychiater, Psychoanalytiker, Gründer einer neuen Denkschule der analytischen Tiefenpsychologie, Autor, Gesammelte Werke, Band 6. Psychologische Typen, Rascher, 10. revidierte Auflage 1967

Zitate zum Thema Myers-Briggs Typologie / Myers-Briggs typology

Zitate allgemein

Persönliche Bekenntnisse

  • Schon als Kind war ich mir häufig selbst ein Rätsel. Ich brauchte Jahre, um dahinterzukommen, dass all meine rätselhaften Widersprüche tatsächlich Sinn ergaben: Ich war ein ganz normaler, introvertierter Mensch. Diese Entdeckung verschaffte mir große Erleichterung. Marti Laney, US-amerikanische Psychologin, zitiert in: Artikel Introvertiert und Extrovertiert, präsentiert von dem deutschen Wellness-Magazin Vital, undatiert
  • Damit hätten wir die vier Reiter [der Apokalypse der Kindheit]: Einmischung, Unzugänglichkeit, Fehleinschätzung und Ablehnung, die dem elterlichen Wohlwollen entspringen und auf der unbewussten Annahme von Gleichheit beruhen. David Keirsey (1931-2013) US-amerikanischer Professor für Psychologie, Typologe, Autor, Marilyn Bates, Mitautorin, Versteh mich bitte, Intj Books, 1. Juli 1990

 

  • Der Mensch trägt immer seine ganze Geschichte und die Geschichte der Menschheit mit sich. Lorenz Jung, Herausgeber, Typologie, S. 35, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (dtv), München, 1990, 1. März 2014

 

(↓)

Drei Viertel Extrovertierte ⇔ ein Viertel Introvertierte

  • Etwa 75 von 100 Personen sind extrovertiert, also eher laut. Nur 25 Prozent sind introvertiert, also eher still. Artikel Introvertiert und Extrovertiert, präsentiert von dem deutschen Wellness-Magazin Vital, undatiert

 

(↓)

Siehe auch:

Extroverts • ambiverts • introverts

  • Im Gehirn introvertierter Menschen nimmt das Blut einen anderen Weg als bei extrovertierten. Bei Lauten ist er kurz und direkt, bei Stillen lang und verzweigt. Außerdem fließt bei ihnen mehr Blut ins Gehirn. Das heißt: Sie werden stärker "von innen" gereizt.6
    Dagegen brauchen laute Menschen viele Reize von außen, weil nur solche bei ihnen die Freisetzung von Adrenalin und Dopamin anregen – zwei Botenstoffe, nach denen Extrovertierte regelrecht süchtig sein können. Dopamin wirkt bei ihnen obendrein später und kürzer als bei stillen Menschen. In deren Gehirnen kommt stattdessen ein anderer Botenstoff zum Einsatz, das Acethylcholin. Artikel Introvertiert und Extrovertiert, präsentiert von dem deutschen Wellness-Magazin Vital, undatiert

 

  • "Beide, Intros und Extros, müssen lernen, sich gegenseitig zu respektieren. Dann können beide Seiten viel voneinander lernen. Wenn beide Temperamente mit ihren jeweiligen Stärken zusammenarbeiten, entsteht produktive Spannung. Weil Extrovertierte meist im Vordergrund stehen, wird ein riesiges Potenzial an guten Ideen und Beiträgen verschenkt. Stille Menschen können so ziemlich alles schaffen, sofern es ihnen wichtig ist." Dr. Sylvia Löhken, deutsche Sprachwissenschaftlerin, Vortragsrednerin, Autorin, zitiert in: Artikel Introvertiert und Extrovertiert, präsentiert von dem deutschen Wellness-Magazin Vital, undatiert

General quotes

  • Conventional measures of mental ability, such as intelligence tests and scholarship, show some of the very highest records belong to INFP and INFJ types, who relegate thinking to last place or next to last. The preference for Thinking appears to have far less intellectual effect than the preference for iNtuition, even in some technical fields, such as scientific research, where its influence was expected to be most important. Isabel Briggs Myers (1897-1980) US American author and co-creator of a personality inventory known as the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Peter B. Myers, Gifts Differing. Understanding Personality Type, Davies-Black Publishing, 1980, reprint edition 1995

 

  • Temperament is a configuration of inclinations, while character is a configuration of habits. David Keirsey (1931-2013) US American psychologist, typologist, author, Marilyn Bates, co-author, Please understand me II, Prometheus Nemesis Book, 1st edition 1st May 1998

Englische Texte – English section on Various typologies

Correlated typology chart

Types, temperaments, signs, and hormones
༺༻TypeTemperament
Alchemical color
Fixed sign
Planet
ElementType
Enneagram
MTBI / Big5
Hormone typeAttractionMessage
1. Guardian
Follower ♦ Builder ♦ Philistine
Phlegmatic
Security seeker
Red
Taurus

Venus
WATER
earth
#9
SJ↔Logical mechanic
Serotonin attracted to serotonin Sameness Stand up, not by. No fence allows one to safely sit and watch the world falter.
Guardians – ⚑ concrete cooperators – #9 – phlegmatics speak mostly of their duties and responsibilities, of what they can
keep an eye on and take good care of. They're careful to obey the laws, follow the rules, and respect the rights of others.[*]
2. Artisan
Bystander ♦ Explorer ♦
Fun lover
Sanguinic
Sensation seeker
Red
Leo

Sun
AIR
fire
#7
SP↔Practical caretaker
Dopamine attracted to dopamine Sameness Stand up, not by. Dictatorships perpetrated atrocities because bystanders stood idly by instead of standing up and getting involved.
Artisans – ⚑ concrete utilitarians – #7 – sanguins speak mostly about what they see right in front of them, about what they can get
their hands on, and they will do whatever works, whatever gives them a quick, effective payoff, even if they have to bend the rules.[*]
3. Idealist ModerateNegotiator
Wisdom loving perfectionist
Melancholic
Identity seeker
White-Black
Aquarius

Uranus
Transsaturnian
EARTH
air
#1
NF↔Empathic idealist
Estrogen attracted to dopamine, serotonin and testosterone Opposites Imbued with an invaluable idealistic asset, liberals-moderates believe that international cooperation can make peace prevail over anarchy. Idealists need to pay attention whether their work nurtures them.
Idealists – ⚑ abstract cooperators – #1 – melancholics speak mostly of what they hope for and imagine might be possible for
people. They want to act in good conscience, always trying to reach their goals without compromising their personal code of ethics.[*]
4. Rational realist
ExtremistDirector ♦
Cynic
Choleric
Knowledge seeker
Black-White
Scorpio

Pluto
Transsaturnian
FIRE
water
#8
NT↔Analytical thinker
Testosterone attracted to estrogen Opposites Doubting that humankind can create world peace, realists-extremists believe the world is caught in Hobbesian anarchy and condemned to endless conflict and war.
  Rationals – ⚑ abstract utilitarians – #8 – cholerics speak mostly of what new problems intrigue them and what new solutions they
envision. Always pragmatic, they act as efficiently as possible to achieve their objectives, ignoring arbitrary rules and conventions if need be.[*]
References:
► Wikipedia entry Keirsey Temperament Sorter – Guardian ◊ Rational ◊ Idealist ◊ Artisan
► [*]Entry Overview of the Four Temperaments – David Keirsey, presented by Keirsey.com, undated
► Entry The Four Temperaments correlated to Myer-Briggs types – David Keirsey, presented by Keirsey.com, undated
See also:
Four temperaments and their correspondences
Three mating drives Helen Fisher ∞ Three types of integration of Yin and Yang Lao Tzu
Hitler's extremist path ⇔ Mandela's moderate path

 

The person who says 'it cannot be done' should not interrupt the person doing it. Chinese adage

 

(↓)

Age-old dichotomy between realists ⇔ idealists / enneagram #8 ⇔ enneagram #1 / cholerics ⇔ melancholics

Sir Samuel Brittan (*1933) suggested to question the old dichotomy between "realists" and "idealists."7
Both are "wrong" and "right" simultaneously. Realists are impressed by Thomas Hobbes's description of the world as a dark place and, indeed, they are often "right." People "seeking Rousseau, are finding Hobbes," as Ralf Dahrendorf coins it. Realists feel superior to frivolous "idealists," who naively dream of a better world. However, "idealists" might be "right" when they call for goals more ambitious than mere survival. They may be justified when they accuse Hobbesian realists of merely covering up their jaded supremacy and lack of willingness to share.
Evelin Gerda Lindner, Ph.D., M.D. humiliationstudies.org (*1954) German physician, psychologist, transdisciplinary scholar in social sciences and humanities, human dignity researcher, founding president of the "Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies" (HumanDHS), Emotion and Conflict. How Human Rights Can Dignify Emotion and Help Us Wage Good Conflict, chapter 9 "How We Can Dignify Our Emotions and Conflicts", S. 146, Praeger Publishers, 2009

 

The Realists see no way out of the present mess except to keep the wolves at bay with sticks and fences; the Idealists see a light at the end of the tunnel but have no clear vision of how to get there from here. Monty G. Marshall, Third World War. System, Process, and Conflict Dynamics, S. 62, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland, and London, 1999

 

So-called realists doubt that humankind can come together and create world peace, since, they say, the world is caught in Hobbesian anarchy and condemned to endless conflict and war. So-called liberals [idealists] are more optimistic, believing that international cooperation can make peace prevail over anarchy.8 Evelin Gerda Lindner, Ph.D., M.D. humiliationstudies.org (*1954) German physician, psychologist, transdisciplinary scholar in social sciences and humanities, human dignity researcher, founding president of the "Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies" (HumanDHS), A Dignity Economy. Creating an Economy that Serves Human Dignity and Preserves Our Planet, chapter 12 "We Need Many More Voices and a Clear Direction!", S. 207, World Dignity University Press, Lake Oswego, Oregon, 2012

 

The important fault lines in conflicts are not those that separate Israelis from Palestinians, Hutus from Tutsis, Singhalese from Tamils, or Americans from the rest of the world. There is only one important fault line – the division between extremists and moderates in all camps. Evelin Gerda Lindner, Ph.D., M.D. humiliationstudies.org (*1954) German physician, psychologist, transdisciplinary scholar in social sciences and humanities, human dignity researcher, founding president of the "Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies" (HumanDHS), Making Enemies. Humiliation and International Conflict, chapter 6 "Humiliation and Terrorism", S. 121, Praeger Security International, Westport, Connecticut, 30. June 2006

 

Look at what realists have done for us. They have led us to war and climate change, poverty on an unimaginable scale, and wholesale ecological destruction. Half of humanity goes to bed hungry because of all the realistic leaders in the world. I tell people who call me "unrealistic" to show me what their realism has done. Realism is an outdated, overplayed and wholly exaggerated concept. Satish Kumar (*1936) Indian Jain monk, activist, nuclear disarmament advocate, environmentalist, pacifist, editor of the magazine Resurgence & Ecologist, cited in: Sica, Giulio, What part does spirituality play in the green movement?, presented by the British daily newspaper The Guardian, London, 15. January 2008

Myers-Briggs typology

US American Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Myers read many new psychology books published in Europe. Both studied Carl Gustav Jung’s work including the concepts of introversion and extroversion. Jung’s work represents the basis for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). It is a framework for classifying personality types along
four distinct axes:

  1. Introversion ⇔ extroversion,
  2. Sensing ⇔ intuition,
  3. Thinkingfeeling and
  4. Judging ⇔ perceiving.

 

The four fundamental personality types in the Myers-Briggs typology correlate almost exactly with the four astrological-elemental types:

  • F ♦ Feeling – Water
  • S ♦ Sensation – Earth
  • N ♦ Intuition – Fire
  • T ♦ Thinking – Air

 

An individual has one dominant preference in each of the four pairs.
Example: An introverted sensor, thinker and perceiver is an ISTP in Myers-Briggs shorthand.

 

 


 

FocusLetterMeaningDescriptionKeywords
Source of energyE Extraversion Need to talk things through Outgoing • talkative • outgoing • friendly • engaging • energetic • sociable
Source of energyI Introversion Need to think things through Shy • reserved • reflective • independent • cool • thoughtful • self-reliant • controlled • self-motivated • deliberate
Receiving informationS Sensing Trusts the establishment
and the tried and true
Facts • details • data collection • realistic • practical • detail-oriented • traditional
Receiving informationN Intuition Grasps the big picture and
future possibilities
Brainstormer • big picture • theory • innovative • unconventional • theoretical • complex
Making decisionsT Thinking Uses the logical choice Rational • black and white • tough-minded • analytical • objective • rational • unsentimental • logical • objective • pragmatic • levelheaded
Making decisionsF Feeling Considers others before making decisions Compassionate • personal • warm • warm • caring • expressing • personable
Personal lifeJ Judging
Left brain
Loves routine and to-do lists Scheduled • structured • organized • orderly • responsible • methodical • hardworking
Personal lifeP Perceiving
Right brain
Enjoys surprises and changing plans Go with the flow • unscheduled • flexible • tolerant • open-minded • changeable • unstructured

 

Sixteen Myers-Briggs personality types
༺༻ Personality·type
Strength
Characteristics of typeDominant
function
Auxiliary functionSuitable
professions
Famous personalities
1.ISTJ
Ethics
Planner Inspector
Hard worker values his responsibilities and commitments
Introverted sensingJudging thinking1. Auditor
2. Accountant
3. Chief financial officer
4. Web development engineer
5. Government employee
Harry Truman
Queen Elizabeth II.
2.ISFJ
Loyalty
Protector Supporter
Modest, determined worker, enjoys helping others
Introverted sensingJudging feeling1. Dentist
2. Elementary school teacher
3. Librarian
4. Franchise owner
5. Customer service representative
Jimmy Stewart
Mother Theresa
3.INFJ
Values
Foreseer Developer Counselor
Thoughtful, creative type driven by firm principles and personal integrity
Introverted intuitionJudging feeling1. Therapist/Mental health counselor
2. Social worker
3. HR diversity manager
4. Organizational development consultant
5. Customer relations manager
Mohandas Gandhi
Eleanor Roosevelt
4.INTJ9
Improvements
Conceptualizer Director Mastermind
Creative perfectionist,
does things his own way
Introverted intuitionJudging thinking1. Investment banker
2. Personal financial adviser
3. Software developer
4. Economist
5. Executive
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Gunter Dueck
Ayn Rand
5.ISTP
Service
Analyzer Operator Craftsman Artisan
Straightforward, honest type, prefer action to conversation
Introverted sensingPerceiving thinking1. Civil engineer
2. Economist
3. Pilot
4. Data communications analyst
5. Emergency room physician
Clint Eastwood
Amelia Earhart
6.ISFP
Empathy
Composer Producer
Warm, sensitive type helping people in tangible ways
Introverted sensingPerceiving feeling1. Fashion designer
2. Physical therapist
3. Massage therapist
4. Landscape architect
5. Storekeeper
Johnny Carson
Barbara Streisand
7.INFP10
Creativity
Healer Harmonizer Clarifier
Sensitive idealist motivated by their deeper personal values
Introverted intuitionPerceiving feeling1. Graphic designer
2. Psychologist/Therapist
3. Writer/Editor
4. Physical therapist
5. HR development trainer
Albert Schweitzer
Anne Lindbergh
8.INTP
Deduction
Designer Theorizer Architect
Independent, creative problem-solver
Introverted intuitionPerceiving thinking1. Computer programmer/Software designer
2. Financial analyst
3. Architect
4. College professor
5. Economist
Albert Einstein
Marie Curie
9.ESTP
Persuasion
Promoter Executor Dynamo
Pragmatist loves excitement, excels in crisis
Extraverted sensingPerceiving thinking1. Detective
2. Banker
3. Investor
4. Entertainment agent
5. Sports coach
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Madonna
10.ESFP
Spontaneity
Motivator Presenter Performer
Lively, playful type value common sense
Extraverted sensingPerceiving feeling1. Civil welfare counselor
2. Primary care physician
3. Actor
4. Interior designer
5. Environmental scientist
Elvis Presley
Elizabeth Taylor
Ken Wilber
11.ENFP
Enthusiasm
Discoverer Advocate Champion
Curious, confident creative type, sees possibilities everywhere
Extraverted intuitionPerceiving feeling1. Journalist
2. Advertising creative director
3. Consultant
4. Restaurateur
5. Event planner
Carl Rogers
Molly Brown
12.ENTP
Articulation
Explorer Inventor Visionary
Creative, enterprising type, enjoys new challenges
Extraverted intuitionPerceiving thinking1. Entrepreneur
2. Real estate developer
3. Advertising creative director
4. Marketing director
5. Politician/Political consultant
Walt Disney
Catherine II.
13.ESTJ
Example
Implementor Supervisor
Realist – quick to make practical decisions
Extraverted sensingJudging thinking1. Insurance sales agent
2. Pharmacist
3. Lawyer
4. Project manager
5. Judge
Colin Powell
Queen Elizabeth I.
14.ESFJ
Aid
Facilitator Provider Caretaker
Gregarious traditionalist motivated to help others
Extraverted sensingJudging feeling1. Sales representative
2. Nurse/Healthcare worker
3. Social worker
4. PR account executive
5. Loan officer
George Washington
Dolley Madison
15.ENFJ
Passion
Envisioner Mentor Teacher
People-lover, energetic, articulate, diplomatic
Extraverted intuitionJudging feeling1. Advertising executive
2. Public relations specialist
3. Corporate coach/Trainer
4. Sales manager
5. Employment specialist/HR professional
Mikhael Gorbachev
Margaret Mead
16.ENTJ
Ambition
Strategist Commander Mobilizer
Natural leader, logical, analytical, good strategic planner
Extraverted intuitionJudging thinking1. Executive
2. Lawyer
3. Market research analyst
4. Management/Business consultant
5. Venture capitalist
Bill Gates
Margaret Thatcher
Source: ► 16 Personalities – Personality Types, presented by NERIS Analytics Limited, 2011-2016
Reference: ► The Best Jobs For Every Personality Type, presented by the German-owned
American business, celebrity and technology news website Business Insider Richard Feloni and Skye Gould, 4. September 2014
See also: ► Myers Briggs personality types

 

Spreading of the sixteen Myers-Briggs personality types
༺༻ Personality type
Description
% Ratio
population
% Men % WomenFamous personalities
1.ISTJ 12%16%7% Harry Truman, Queen Elizabeth II., Warren Buffett, George Washington, Queen Victoria, George H.W. Bush, and J.D. Rockefeller
2.ISFJ 14%8%19% Mother Theresa, George H.W. Bush, Laura Bush, King George VI, Jimmy Stewart, Clara Barton
3.INFJ 2%1%2% Mahatma Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt, Emily Bronte, Carl Jung, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Florence Nightingale, Shirley MacLaine, Jimmy Carter
4.INTJ 2%3%1% Sir Isaac Newton, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Hillary Clinton, Al Gore, Bill Gates, Alan Greenspan, Ulysses S. Grant, Stephen Hawking, John Maynard Keynes, Ayn Rand, Isaac Asimov, Lewis Carroll, Cormac McCarthy, Gunter Dueck
5.ISTP5% 9%2% Katherine Hepburn, Lance Armstrong, Bruce Lee, Michael Jordan, Chuck Yaeger, Rowan Atkinson, Clint Eastwood, Amelia Earhart
6.ISFP9% 8%10% Barbara Streisand, Cher, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Bob Dylan, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Steven Spielberg, Johnny Carson
7.INFP 4%4%5% St. John the disciple, William Shakespeare, Albert Schweitzer, George Orwell, Audrey Hepburn, Princess Diana, Fred Rogers, A.A. Milne, Helen Keller, Anne Lindbergh, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Julia Roberts, Isabel Myers (creator of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)
8.INTP 3%5%2% Socrates, Thomas Jefferson, Rene Descartes, Abraham Lincoln, Charles Darwin, Marie Curie, C.G. Jung, Albert Einstein
9.ESTP 4%6%3% Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, George W. Bush, Mae West, Eddie Murphy, Bruce Willis, Madonna, Donald Trump, Evel Knievel
10.ESFP9%7%10% Marilyn Monroe, Judy Garland, Elvis Presley, Ronald Reagan, Elizabeth Taylor, Paul McCartney, Bob Hope, Goldie Hawn, Magic Johnson
11.ENFP8%6%10% Mark Twain, Bill Clinton, Phil Donahue, Edith Wharton, Carl Rogers, Will Rogers, Carol Burnett, Dr. Seuss, Robin Williams, Drew Barrymore, Julie Andrews, Alicia Silverstone, Joan Baez, Regis Philbin, Molly Brown
12.ENTP
3%4%2% Catherine II., Benjamin Franklin, Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison, Richard Feynmann, Lewis Carroll, Walt Disney, Alfred Hitchcock, John Malkovich, "Weird Al" Yankovic
13.ESTJ9%11%6% Queen Elizabeth I., George Washington, Harry Truman, Colin Powell, Judge Judy Sheindlin, Dr. Laura Schlessinger, Sandra Day O’Connor, Mike Wallace, Vince Lombardi
14.ESFJ 12%8%17% Sam Walton, Barbara Walters, William Howard Taft, JC Penney, Martha Stewart, Sally Field, Mary Tyler Moore, Dave Thomas, Ray Kroc, Dolley Madison
15.ENFJ 3%2%3% Pope John Paul II, Abraham Maslow, Margaret Mead, Martin Luther King, Mikhael Gorbachev, Jr., Oprah Winfrey, Ralph Nader, Dr. Phil McGraw
16.ENTJ 2%3%1% Napoleon Bonaparte, Carl Sagan, Douglas MacArthur, General Norman Schwarzkopf, Margaret Thatcher, Bill Gates, David Letterman, Harrison Ford, Quentin Tarantino

 

Mental illness tendencies of Myers-Briggs personality types

 

Complimentary questionnaire to find out one's Myer-Briggs personality type Human Metrics

 

Sources and references:
The Sixteen Personality Types, presented by personalitydesk.com
Discover Your Personality Type, presented by truity.com
The Definition Of Hell For Each Myers-Briggs Personality Type, presented by Heidi Priebe,12. May 2015
Forum: ► Forums for MB types like INTP Forum (Registration required)
Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Myers–Briggs Type Indicator
Referenz: de.Wikipedia entry Myers-Briggs-Typenindikator
See also: ► Characteristics of and myths about introverts and ► Features of empaths – Judith Orloff

Shorthand Myers-Briggs profiles

Shorthand profiles of the 16 Myers-Briggs personality types
༺༻ProfileName of the Myers-Brigg type
1.InspectorISTJ11
2.ProtectorISFJ12
3.Counselor / Lover of beauty and wisdomINFJ
4.MastermindINTJ13
5.ArtisanISTP14
6.ComposerISFP15
7.Healer / Creative seekerINFP
8.Architect / Thinker and seekerINTP
9.DynamoESTP16
10.PerformerESFP17
11.Champion / Creative IdealistENFP
12.Visionary / Intuitive seekerENTP
13.SupervisorESTJ18
14.ProviderESFJ19
15.TeacherENFJ20
16.CommanderENTJ21
Sources:
► Overview Profiles of the 16 Myers Briggs Personality Types, presented by truity.com, undated
► Overview 16 personality type profiles, presented by Personality Junkie, Dr. A. J. Drenth, undated
Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Four temperaments
Siehe auch: ► Archetypen

Characteristics of the inferior function

According to Marie-Louise von Franz22, the primitive function will often sabotage one's conscious aims in life.
Having one's full consciousness developed means one is fully aware of one's inferior side.

 

                                                 THINKING TYPES – ENTJ ❁ INTP ❁ ESTJ ❁ ISTP                                                 
The inferior function will express itself in disruptive explosive or implosive feelings or in rigid likes and dislikes which are pure prejudice.
Extraverted·thinkingENTJ • ESTJ Introverted feeling: depressions, fear of being rejected
Introverted thinkingINTP • ISTP Extroverted feeling: black-and-white judgments, a two-valued world, tendency to
over dependency and sticky, clingy relationships
                                                 FEELING TYPES – ENFJ ❁ INFP ❁ ESFJ ❁ ISFP                                                 
The inferior function will express itself in domineering and dogmatic opinions which run far beyond one's real certitude.
Extroverted·feelingENFJ • ESFJ Introverted thinking: over-critical, cynical attitudes, tendency to classify people rigidly, getting
caught up in a system of thought that one tries to sell
Introverted feelingINFP • ISFP Extraverted thinking: overwhelmed with too many ideas, too much material, is forced to
oversimplify any description of social reality
                                                 SENSING TYPES – ESFP ❁ ISFJ ❁ ESTP ❁ ISTJ                                                 
The inferior function will express itself in catastrophic expectation.
Extraverted·sensationESFP • ESTP Introverted intuition: can frighten one with weird vision and fantasies of disaster
Introverted sensationISFJ • ISTJ Extraverted intuition: attracts one to far-out apocalyptic groups or feelings of
apocalyptic doom in the collective world
                                                 INTUITIVE TYPES – ENFP ❁ INFJ ❁ ENTP ❁ INTJ                                                 
The inferior function will express itself in absorption in the material world, especially in piling up possessions,
greed, and pleasure seeking which is compulsive.
Extraverted·intuitionENFP • ENTP Introverted sensation: will concentrate on inner feelings and pleasure,
paradoxically ignores real bodily needs until they cry out to be heard
Introverted intuitionINFJ • INTJ Extraverted sensation: gets strongly attached to having (in contrast to doing and being),
expresses itself in an inferior grasp of space and time facts

Individuation calls for one to become fully aware of the inferior function, "the devil speaking" but also where the angels can come in. One cannot simply tackle the inferior function directly, on a conscious level. Here is where Jung's transcendent function comes in, creating or drawing upon uniting or reconciling symbols which allows one to find not perfection, but wholeness or completeness, and helps one to find useful ways of expressing the opposites in one's life. Jung's concept of religious experience includes this reconciliation.

 

Characteristics of the Inferior Function
༺༻Features of the "inferior function"
1. The unconscious often speaks to the conscious mind through the Inferior Function.
Therefore, it holds the secret key to becoming an integrated, whole person – a person who can access untapped potentials.
2. You may often tie into an ecstatic experience through the Inferior Functions (especially in the second half of life).
3. When used in a conscious way, its use is generally slow compared to the dominant and auxiliary functions and is not used as competently.
4. You feel like you are behaving either like a fool or a hero.
5. You can experience either a state of inflation or a state of hopelessness and gloom.
6. It often shows itself as the despised parts of your personality and maladapted (not congruent to the "Me" you consciously know).
7. You often experience a touchiness around someone criticizing any work or behavior which involves this function. You may become paralyzed and send your tyrant out to defend yourself.
8. Your judgment about your ability to use this function competently is not very positive, so you can be easily influenced by others' judgments in matters involving its use.
9. Behavior can become compulsive – you cannot seem to stop what you are doing even if a part of your conscious mind wants to.
10. You may often feel a tremendous charge of emotions.
11. You may be moody.
12. It is difficult for its opposite function to be usable (example: for a dominant Thinker, when the inferior Feeling function is "in charge", the person cannot think).
13. Often ideas, thoughts, and feelings that surface are not grounded in reality.
14. You are not available to other people for "rational" discussions."

 

Coping with the Inferior Function
༺༻Features of the "inferior function"
1. Give it time to function.
2. Don't attempt work which involves extensive use of this function when you are tired and/or under stress.
3. Don't expect to use it with the same efficiency as you use your dominant and auxiliary.
4. Deal with this function with a sense of humor. Observe when old patterns come up and learn to laugh about them. This usually takes away some of the energy invested in the situation and allows you to rebalance. When this happens you can then look at what triggered your habitual response – what "hooked" you.
5. Remember when you feel foolish that it is the fool who often finds the treasure.
6. Ask your dominant or auxiliary function to take a vacation so that your inferior function has time to develop. The more it is developed, the easier it will be for you to use it consciously and the less likely are the chances you will experience it as intruding in "unproductive" ways.
7. Watch for bodily and/or emotional changes which signal its presence.
8. Look at your projections – they often signal a trait about yourself which you are not consciously willing to own, thus setting yourself up for being in the grips of the inferior function. To do this, examine what qualities, values, or principles you see in the other person that bother you. Remember that it is through the inferior function that the unconscious frequently tries to communicate with you concerning matters about which you need to become conscious.
9. Look at what you envy in others and take self-ownership.
10. Have dialogues with the parts of you that you dislike. Write down your thoughts and feelings. Getting this objectivity often allows you to become "more conscious."
11. Be humble – neither super-critical nor self-pitying.
Reference: ► Article by Michael T. Robinson, Cognitive Functions Explained In Simple Terms,
presented by CareerPlanner.com (1997-2018), undated

List of Socionics types

The Socionics model A of the psyche, using Carl Jung's typology as a foundation, was created in the 1970's by the Lithuanian psychologist, sociologist, and economist Aushra Augusta (†2005). He was the dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University's department of family science.
Socionics has 16 sociotypes. A person gravitates only to one sociotype, a specific, unique mode of information metabolism. It pairs 8 information elements with 8 functions.

 

Socionics typology chart
Quadra
type
༺༻Socionics type
Description
Characteristics of intro/extrovertsListingNames of correlated famous personalities
Alpha1.LII – INTj
Analyst
Logical intuitive introvert
Rational-judging
LIIsCarrie-Ann Moss, Nicole Kidman,
Maximilien Robespierre, Larry Page, Larry King,
Immanuel Kant, Colin Powell, Donald Rumsfeld
Beta5.LSI – ISTj
Inspector
Logical sensing introvert
Rational Judging
LSIsJason Statham, Burt Reynolds, Dick Cheney,
Condoleezza Rice, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Al Pacino,
Alex Trebek, Anthony Hopkins
Gamma9.ESI – ISFj
Guardian
Ethical sensing introvert
Rational-judging
ESIsMeg Ryan, John Travolta, Mischa Barton,
David Hasselhoff, Julianne Moore, Kevin Costner
Delta13.EII – INFj
Empath
Ethical intuitive introvert
Rational-judging
EIIsAbraham Lincoln, Adrien Brody, David Duchovny,
John Forbes Kerry, Neve Campbell, Calista Flockhart,
Christopher Reeve, Jeremy Irons, James Hillman
Alpha4.SEI – ISFp
Mediator
Sensing ethical introvert
Irrational-perceiving
SEIsGeorge Lucas, Claire Forlani, Johnny Depp,
Kevin Spacey, Danny Devito, John Candy, Matt LeBlanc
Gamma10.SEE – ESFp
Diplomat
Sensing ethical introvert
Irrational-perceiving
SEEsMilla Jovovich, Britney Spears, Joe Pesci,
Gene Hackman, Elizabeth Taylor,
Elvis Presley, George W. Bush, Ken Wilber
Delta16.SLI – ISTp
Craftsman
Sensing logical introvert
Irrational-perceiving
SLIsJohn Goodman, Angelina Jolie, Jeff Daniels,
Harrison Ford, Hayden Christensen, John Malkovich, Mickey Rourke, Grace Kelly
Beta8.IEI – INFp
Romantic
Intuitive ethical introvert
Irrational-perceiving
IEIsHans Christian Andersen, Edward Norton,
Mahatma Gandhi, Adam Rodriguez, Andy Warhol,
Josh Hartnett, Michael Jackson, Garrison Keillor
Gamma12.ILI – INTp
Critic
Intuitive logical introvert
Irrational-perceiving
ILIsJohn Rhys-Davies, Dustin Hoffman, George Orwell,
Gabriel Verne, Charles Darwin
Alpha3.ESE – ESFj
Enthusiast
Ethical sensing extrovert
Rational-judging
ESEsJacques Chirac, Bill Clinton, Jessica Alba
Beta7.EIE – ENFj
Actor
Ethical intuitive extrovert
Rational-judging
EIEsMichael Moore, David Bowie,
Mary Tyler Moore, Michael Douglas
Gamma11.LIE – ENTj
Entrepreneur
Logical intuitive extrovert
Rational-judging
LIEsJulia Roberts, Brad Pitt,
Amanda Peet, Matt Damon
Delta15.LSE – ESTj
Director
Logical sensing extrovert
Rational Judging
LSEsMel Gibson, Cindy Crawford, Gillian Anderson,
Daniel Craig, George Bush Sr.,
Bruce Willis, Arnold Schwarzenegger
Alpha2.ILE – ENTp
Inventor
Intuitive logical extrovert
Irrational-perceiving
ILEs George Soros, Albert Einstein,
Alan Greenspan, Justin Long
Beta6.SLE – ESTp
Conqueror
Sensing logical extrovert
Irrational-perceiving
SLEsMarlon Brando, Gordon Ramsay,
Johnny Knoxville, Mike Tyson
Delta14.IEE – ENFp
Psychologist
Intuitive Ethical extrovert
Irrational-perceiving
IEEsKatharine Hepburn, Elijah Wood, Keanu Reeves,
Michael J. Fox, Heather Graham, David Schwimmer,
Diane Keaton, Carrie Fisher

 

Socionics typology chart
Rational judging type – left brained Irrational perceiving type – right brained
Tends to plan ahead, make decisions earlyTends to wait and see, more spontaneous
Tends to be rigid and stubbornTends to be flexible and tolerant.
Avoids to change decisionsChanges decisions frequently.
Tends to finish what they started.Tend to start new things without finishing them.
Usually has stiff movements.Usually has gentle movements.
Gravitates to a more 'authoritarian' leadership style.Gravitates to a more 'democratic' leadership style.
Has low stress tolerance.Has high stress tolerance.

 

Rational typesLII (INTj)ESE (ESFj)LSI (ISTj)EIE (ENFj)ESI (ISFj)LIE (ENTj)EII (INFj)LSE (ESTj)
Irrational typesILE (ENTp)SEI (ISFp)SLE (ESTp)IEI (INFp)SEE (ESFp)ILI (INTp)IEE (ENFp)SLI (ISTp)

 

ILE, SEI, ESE, LII are Alpha quadra types.Alpha types are judicious, merry, democratic.
EIE, LSI, SLE, IEI are Beta quadra types.Beta types are decisive, merry, aristocratic.
SEE, ILI, LIE, ESI are Gamma quadra types.Gamma types are decisive, serious, democratic.
LSE, EII, IEE, SLI are Delta quadra types.Delta types are judicious, serious, aristocratic.

 

To find one's own Socionics type a questionaire is offered: Sociotype Test

Characteristics of the INFP type

Introvert Quiet, reserved, self sufficient, solidarizing drains their energy, comfortable being alone, processes thoughts internally,
needs time alone to recharge
Intuitive Imagitive, creative, introspective, good at analysis and complex topics, focuses on the future instead of the present,
trusts gut instincts
Feeling Uses personal values, feelings and subjective criteria to make decisions, ruled by the heart, not the head, diplomatic,
tactful, empathetic, motivated by appreciation, prefers to avoid arguments and conflicts.
Perceiving Prefers spontaneity, flexibility, keeping options open, being adaptable, going with the flow, playful, less aware of time,
prefers to start projects, questions the need for many rules
Creative INFPs are extremely imaginative and creative individuals. They like to think outside-the-box and see ingenious or
innovative ways to do things.
Sincere INFPs believe in being authentic as much as possible. Lying is anathema to them, and while INFPs can be guarded,
they are extremely turned off by phony or manipulative behavior.
Empathetic INFPs tend to mirror the emotions of other people – they put themselves in other people's shoes and use their imagination and empathy to have compassion for them. They are very good at listening to other people’s problems and concerns without passing judgment. They are skilled at providing a safe space for other people to talk, express themselves, and find support.
Open•minded INFPs tend to have a live-and-let-live attitude towards others. They don't desire to force their beliefs onto others, and
usually they will only call out someone’s behavior if it's hurting someone or if it clearly violates their values.
Dedicated INFPs are passionate about the causes that are close to their hearts. They are very loyal to their beliefs and are dedicated
to their vision and ideas for the future. They can be very courageous when fighting for a value or cause they believe in.

INFPs, called "the mediator", "the true harmonizer" and "the authenticator", are paradoxical beings.
1. INFPs are not a fairly uncommon type.
2. INFPs are both curious and shy.
3. INFPs can be extremely determined or apathetic.
4. INFPs can be easygoing or stubborn.
5. INFPs are perfectionists but can also be negligent.
6. INFPs are unconventional and quirky, but also traditional.
7. INFPs want to be autonomous and free, but also have stability and order.
8. INFPs feel happy and sad at the same time.
9. INFPs want the ideal partner, but may find themselves drawn to toxic relationships.
10. INFPs are both children and old souls.
11. INFPs can actually be very productive.
12. INFPs are incredibly relaxed and easygoing about certain things.
13. Although sensitive, INFPs can be incredibly resilient.
14. Although emotional, INFPs are both rational and calculating.
15. Despite being introverts, INFPs can be remarkably talkative.
16. INFPs obtain comfort from structure and the real world.
17. INFPs have the capacity to be incredibly happy.
18. INFPs are human catalysts and adverse to cliques.
19. INFPs are vicarious scapegoats carrying the conscience of the entire human race.
20. INFPs want to help others yet they resist human contact.
21. INFPs are quiet and won't share themselves with just anyone.
22. INFPs enjoy discussing the unusual and lesser-chosen topics.
23. INFPs spend a lot of time ruminating.
24. INFPs are intent to explore all the what-ifs before moving on.
25. INFPs want to understand the reasons behind someone's actions.
26. INFPs may think and speak with metaphors and symbols.
27. INFPs take part in conversations to listen more than to speak.
28. INFPs will feel emotional pain at another's distress.
29. INFPs can cry about something other people may not understand.
30. INFPs dislike following the crowd without a good reason.
31. INFPs may talk to animals and inanimate objects.
32. INFPs may be distracted by the beauty of trees blowing in the wind.

References:
► Article INFP (the authenticator, idealist,& mediator), presented by darbi sue dunbar, 6. May 2017
► Article by Anne Lee 8 Unexpected Traits of the INFP Personality, presented by the publication Introvert Dear, 13. March 2019

INFP AQUARIUS
The INFP Aquarius is probably something of a rebel. The INFP is individual-minded anyway but an Aquarius INFP likely takes this to another level. It’s them against the establishment, fighting for the good of humanity. They have noble ideals and values and they are motivated by meaningful causes to which they can devote their passion. The Aquarian INFP wants to help others and they likely have an interest in humanitarianism and philanthropy. They use their creative minds to devise clever unorthodox ideas that challenge the status quo. They are very inspired and enchanted individuals who have the capacity to light a fire in the hearts of others.

Source: ► Article 12 Variations of INPF? – Zodiac And The MBTI, presented by Astroligion, undated

Ten phrases not received graciously by INFP types
1. You're being too emotional.
2. You're too naive.
3. Don't take this personally.
4. Life's not fair.
5. Stop trying to find a deeper meaning.
6. Get your head out of the clouds.
7. You wouldn't understand.
8. Because I said so.
9. You're just like this other person _____ .
10. Lighten up!

Source: ► Blog article 10 Things You Should Never Say to an INFP, presented by Psychology Junkie, Susan Storm, 3. September 2017

ENFPs juxtaposed to INFPs

1.ENFPs speculate first and feel second.INFPs feel first and speculate second.
2.ENFPs enjoy the spotlight.INFPs shy away from the limelight.
3.ENFPs use humor to make light of serious situations.INFPs prefer to delve deeply into serious situations.
4.ENFPs leap before they look.INFPs look before they leap.
5.ENFPs tend to question their extroversion.INFPs tend to be positive that they're [50%] introverts.
6.ENFPs are more at risk of losing touch with their feelings.INFPs are more at risk of losing touch with the external world.
7.When a loved one is in need of advice, ENFPs
offer empowering suggestions.
INFPs offer emotional guidance.
8.ENFPs fantasize about the different experiences
they could have.
INFPs fantasize about the different feelings they could have.
9.ENFPs are open and welcoming.INFPs take time to warm up to new people.
10.ENFPs are highly excitable – even when they are alone.INFPs are selectively excitable around others.
Source: ► Article 10 Signs You're An ENFP, Not An INFP, presented by the website Thought Catalog, Heidi Priebe, 29. September 2015
Famous INFP personalities William Shakespeare, Helen Keller, Albert Schweitzer, Fred Rogers, John Lennon, Emily Brontë
Princess Diana, Audrey Hepburn, Kurt Cobain, Tori Amos, Ann Morrow Lindberg
INFP aphorism "In the depth of winter, I finally learned that there was in me an invincible summer."  Albert Camus

 

Written references:
► Article INFP Personality Type – The Idealist, presented personality perfect, undated
► Typology question and answers What is an INFP like?, presented by the Californian question-and-answer website Quora,
     started April 2017
► Article 12 Secrets of the INFP Personality Type, presented by the online publication Introvert, Dear, Jenn Granneman, 14. January 2018
► Article INFP In-Depth Profile – A Look At "The Idealist", presented by Psychology Junkie, Susan Storm, 29. May 2018

Characteristics of the four temperaments

Questions raised by the four temperaments
༺༻BehaviorQuestionTemperamentEnneagram type
1.Cowardice asks the question, Is it safe?PhlegmaticType #9
2.Expediency asks the question, Is it politic?CholericType #8
3.Vanity asks the question, Is it popular?SanguinType #7
4.But conscience asks the question, Is it right?MelancholicType #1
And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular
but one must take it because conscience tells one it is right.
Source: ► Speech by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) US American Baptist minister, activist, leader of the African American
civil rights movement, Nobel Peace Prize laureate, 1964, Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution, National Cathedral,
Washington, DC, 31. March 1968, Congressional record, 9. April 1968

 

Differentiating the four temperaments
❄ ❄ ❄     Choleric          Sanguine          Phlegmatic          Melancholic     
Motto "Do it." "Have fun." "Be nice to others." "Do it right."
Characteristics Determined, quick to act, fiery, energetic, passionate
Rational realist
Expediency
Warm hearted, outgoing, volatile, optimistic, cheerful
Artisan
Vanity
Slow, patient, calm, quiet,
shy, rational, consistent
Idealist
Cowardice
Serious, quiet, anticipating, sad, fearful, depressed, poetic, artistic
Guardian
Conscience
Psyche pole Extraverted
Task-oriented
Outgoing
Extraverted
People-oriented
Outgoing
Introverted
People-oriented
Reserved
Introverted
Task-oriented
Reserved
Element FIRE AIR WATER EARTH
Season Summer Spring Winter Autumn
Humour Yellow bile Blood Phlegm Black bile
Personalities Julius Caesar, Nero, Margret Thatcher, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey,
Bill O'Reilly23
Pope Francis, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, Barack Obama, Ursula K. LeGuin,
Simon Sinek24
Mahatma Gandhi,
Princess Diana, Nelson Mandela, Dalai Lama, Michael Jackson25
Socrates, Marie Curie, Vincent
van Gogh, Carl Gustav Jung, Albert Einstein, Jordan Peterson, Morgan Freeman26

 


 

Beneficial dealings with people and their respective temperaments
     Choleric          Sanguine          Phlegmatic          Melancholic     
Honor the realist Enjoy the entertainer Respect the watcher Dignify the idealist
Know they charge ahead
doing it now
Let them have fun Understand they are
nice to others
Consider they insist
do it right
Be brief Be exciting Be amiable, easy-going Be broad, specific and accurate
Confront and tease them Be optimistic Be patient Provide different perspectives
Challenge the maker Be friendly Be appreciative Engage the shaker
Provide direct answers Give strokes Give lots of lead time Raise deepening questions
Provide high points only Let them talk Present change in a
non-threatening way
Provide layers of explanations
Reassure them of no surprises
Free them from details Don't dwell on details Define roles clearly Provide details
Use charts and graphs
Stress results Put details in writing Provide support Point to synchronicities
Show how the pieces fit
Stick to business Provide incentives Recede their anxiety Allow for depth and width
Stress logic Use expert testimonials Let them sort it out Allow for the bigger picture to unfold
Emphasize what, when Emphasize who Emphasize how, when Emphasize why

 

Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Four temperaments
See also:
Conscience
Four temperaments and their correspondences
Fourfold nature of the psyche and various fourfold constellations
Teaching systems Trivium and Quadrivium – The seven liberal arts
Various four quadrant typologies – Outlining the Human Design System
Reactions to encountering the seventh vault of the seventh heaven
Siehe auch: ► Eigenschaften der vier Temperamente

Four temperaments correlated with elements, qualities, beings and solids

Overview: Temperaments • Elements • Directions • Bodies •
Properties • Zodiac signs • Angels • Elementals
TemperamentElementDirectionProperty
Aristotle
Platonic solid
Plato
Signs of the zodiac
Astrology
ArchangelElemental
Paracelsus
Choleric Fire SouthWarm, dryHot TetrahedronAries, Leo, Sagittarius Michael Salamander
Melancholic Earth NorthCold, dryHeavy DiceTaurus, Virgo, Capricorn Uriel Gnome
Sanguin Air EastWarm, wetBright OctahedronGemini, Libra, Aquarius Raphael Sylph
Phlegmatic Water WestCold, wetSoft IcosahedronCancer, Scorpio, Pisces Gabriel Undine
Reference: en.Wikipedia entries Classical element and ► Astrology and the classical elements
See also: ► Four elements
Siehe auch: ► Vier Temperamente korreliert mit Elementen, Eigenschaften, Wesen und Körpern

Human Design System

 

Links zum Thema Myers-Briggs Typologie / Myers-Briggs typology

Literatur

Literature (engl.)

Externe Weblinks

Google-Suche zum Stichwort Enneagramm: 141.000 Ergebnisse


Human Design


External web links (engl.)

Audio- und Videolinks

Audio and video links (engl.)

  • Video presentation by Mark Gungor, US American pastor, comedian, marriage counselor, international speaker, The 4 Countries of People, YouTube film, 16:19 minutes duration, posted 6. May 2012

The four basic temperaments i.e. personality types were defined by Plato, Aristotle, Galen (2nd century A.D.), refined by Carl Gustav Jung and Myer-Briggs, and included in the nine types of the Enneagram: #1, #7, #8, #9. Greek physician, outstanding figure in the history of medicine, and healer, Hippocrates of Cos (~460-~370 BC) incorporated the Four temperaments into his medical theories.
Minute 0:10: Control country: Slytherin; Choleric control people, #8: "Get it done." Main desire: appreciation and accomplishments
Minute 2:04: Fun country: Gryffindor; Sanguine fun people, #7: "Have fun." Main desire: attention and socializing
Minute 7:13: Perfect country: Ravenclaw; Melancholic perfect people, #1: "Get it right." Strongest desire: sensitivity and compassion
Minute 12:17: Peace country: Hufflepuff; Phlegmatic peace people, #9: "Get along." Main desire: respect and security

Description of Perfect people: enneagram #1

 

Interne Links

Englisch Wiki

Hawkins

 

 

1 Kurzprofile der neun Enneagrammtypen

2 Artikel Persönlichkeit nach Eysenck, präsentier von Online Lexikon für Psychologie und Pädagogik, 5. Oktober 2019

3 Blogartikel Das narzisstische Dilemma: Ein Lösungsansatz, präsentiert von der Geschichten-Publikation Medium, The New Worker, Frank Widmayer, 19. Dezember 2017
Anhand der Verhaltenspräferenzen der vier Basistypen ergibt sich für typisch narzisstische Eigenschaften eine auffällige Deckung mit den roten (Dominanz) und gelben (Initiative) Typen.

4 Artikel Psychologie: Eine Studie behauptet, es gäbe nur vier Persönlichkeits-Typen, präsentiert von der deutschen Monatszeitschrift Neon, 24. September 2018

5 Average Neuroticism (+) Extraversion (+) Openness (-)
Self-centered Extraversion (+) Openness (-) Agreeableness (-) Conscientiousness (-)
Role model Neuroticism (-) Extraversion (+) Openness (+) Agreeableness (+) Conscientiousness (+)
Reserved Extraversion (-) Neuroticism (-) Agreeableness (+) Conscientiousness (+)
Article There’s an infinite spectrum of personality types that science will never understand, presented by the US American online portal Quartz, Olivia Goldhill, 20. September 2018

6 Dr. Daniel Kahnemann (*1934) israelisch-amerikanischer Professor für Psychologie, Gründer der Verhaltensökonomie, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, 2002, Princeton Universität, New Jersey, Autor, Schnelles Denken, langsames Denken, Siedler Verlag, 25. Auflage 21. Mai 2012

7 Hinton Lecture by Sir Samuel Brittan, one of the United Kingdom's foremost political economists, An Ethical Foreign Policy?, Harvard School of Public Health, 24. November 1999

8 Kenneth Waltz, Theory of International Politics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachussetts, 1979
Robert O. Keohane, International Liberalism Reconsidered, in: John Dunn, The Economic Limits to Modern Politics, S. 165-194, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts, 1990

9 INTJ Personality Type & Traits, presented by Personality Junkie, Dr. A. J. Drenth, undated

10 INFP Personality Type: The Creative Seeker, presented by Personality Junkie, Dr. A. J. Drenth, undated

11 ISTJ Personality Profile

12 ISFJ Personality Type Profile

13 INTJ Personality Type & Traits

14 ISTP Personality Type Profile

15 ISFP Personality Type Profile

16 ESTP Personality Profile

17 ESFP Personality Type Profile

18 ESTJ Personality Type Profile

19 ESFJ Personality Type Profile

20 ENFJ Personality Type Profile

21 ENTJ Personality Profile

22 Lectures on Jung's Typology, Seminar Series, volume 4, Spring Publication, 1. paperback edition January 1983

23 Famous Choleric people

24 Famous Sanguine people

25 Famous Choleric people

26 Famous Melancholic people

Letzte Bearbeitung:
01.07.2019 um 22:52 Uhr

Page generated in 0.962 seconds.