Ashoka Chakra, as depicted on
the National flag of the Republic of India
Etymologisch bedeutete Tugend Stärke, magische Kraft.
Vier Vereinbarungen – Miguel Ángel Ruiz
Der mexikanischer Autor, Schamane und Toltekenmeister Don Miguel Ángel Ruiz (*1952) war ursprünglich Chirurg.
Four-leaf white clover
Eine Nahtoderfahrung bewegte ihn, sich wieder mit den Lehren seiner toltekischen Vorfahren zu beschäftigen. Er lernte von seiner Mutter Sarita, einer curandera (Heilerin), und seinem Großvater, einem Schamanen. Berühmt wurde Ruiz mit seinem Buch Die vier Versprechen, im englischen Original veröffentlicht 1997, das der Integrität, Selbstliebe und dem Frieden der Menschen gewidmet ist.
Die vier Versprechen, dienen als Wegweiser, den Traum der Hölle in einen Traum des Himmels auf Erden zu verwandeln. Sie lauten:
- Wähle deine Worte mit Bedacht und spreche einwandfrei. [Wahrhaftige Sprache]
- Nimm' nichts persönlich.
- Ziehe keine voreiligen Schlüsse. [Unterstelle nichts.]
- Tu' stets dein Bestmögliches.
Zitate zum Thema Tugenden / Virtues
- Allein der, der ein sittlich gutes Leben führt, kann als gesegnet und glücklich gelten [...]. Für das gute und glückliche Leben soll allein entscheidend sein, ob jemand Weisheit erlangt. Platon (427-347 v. Chr.) vorchristlicher altgriechischer Philosoph, Begründer der abendländischen Philosophie, zitiert in: Christoph Horn (*1964) deutscher Philosoph, Autor, Glück bei Platon. Moralischer Intellektualismus und Ideentheorie, zitiert in: Dieter Thomä, Herausgeber, Christoph Henning, Herausgeber, Olivia Mitscherlich-Schönherr, Herausgeberin, Glück. Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch, S. 117 und S. 121, J.B. Metzler, Stuttgart/Weimar, 2. Auflage 12. April 2011
- Die Tugend [...] ist das eigentliche Wesen oder die eigentliche Natur des Menschen, insofern er die Macht hat, etwas zu bewirken, was durch die Gesetze seiner eigenen Natur nicht begriffen werden kann. Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) niederländischer Philosoph, Heinz-Joachim Fischer, Herausgeber, Hauptwerk Die Ethik, 4. Teil, 1677, marix Verlag, Imprint von Verlagshaus Römerweg, 1. Auflage 20. September 2007
- Die Gruppe von vier Haupttugenden ist erstmals bei dem griechischen Dichter Aischylos belegt, in seinem 467 v. Chr. entstandenen Stück Sieben gegen Theben (Vers 610). Er scheint sie als bekannt vorauszusetzen; daher wird vermutet, dass sie schon im griechischen Adel des 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. geläufig waren. Aischylos charakterisiert den Seher Amphiaraos als tugendhaften Menschen, indem er ihn als
- verständig (sóphron),
- gerecht (díkaios),
- fromm (eusebés) und
- tapfer (agathós) bezeichnet.
- Tugenden und Mädchen sind am schönsten, ehe sie wissen, dass sie schön sind. Ludwig Börne (1786-1837) deutscher Literatur-, Theater- und Gesellschaftskritiker, Journalist, Schriftsteller, Edgar Schumacher, Herausgeber, Kritische Schriften, S. 256, Artemis-Verlag, Zürich, 1964
- Die Tugend ist ihre eigene Belohnung. Sprichwort
- Should we all confess our sins to one another we would all laugh at one another for our lack of originality.
Should we all reveal our virtues we would also laugh for the same cause. Khalil Gibran (1883-1931) Lebanese US American painter, philosopher, poet, writer, Will Jonson, editor, Sand and Foam, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 27. September 2014
- Without courage we cannot practice any other virtue with consistency. We can't be kind, true, merciful, generous, or honest. Maya Angelou (1928-2014) US American historian, actress, producer, director, educator, civil-rights activist, playwright, poet, bestselling black author, presented by the US American daily middle-market newspaper USA Today, 5. March 1988
Confucius describes rén (spoken jen) as humanity expressed in cardinal moral values. Rén means complete virtue.
''Fan Chi asked about humaneness. The Master said it is loving people.
Fan Chi asked about wisdom. The Master said it is knowing people."
- Everybody makes fun of virtue, which by now has, as its primary meaning, an affectation of prudery practiced by hypocrites and the impotent. Thomas Merton (1915-1968) Anglo-American Catholic Trappist monk, mystic student of comparative religion, social activist, poet, writer, autobiography The Seven Storey Mountain, Harcourt Brace, 11. October 1948
- [O]nly a virtuous people are capable of freedom. As nations become corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters. Benjamin Franklin [The First American, Founding Father] (1706-1705) US American statesman, political theorist, occultist, polymath, diplomat, civic activist, author, letter to the Abbés Chalut and Arnaud, 17. April 1787
- The Real Work
The mind that is not baffled is not employed.
The impeded stream is the one that sings.
Wendell Berry (*1934) US American man of letters, academic, cultural and economic critic, writer, source unknown
- In the future [...]
☛ mental exercise will be accepted and practiced in the same way as physical exercise today.
☛ We will have a science of virtuous qualities.
☛ We will incorporate the mind back into medicine and better understand how the brain can modulate peripheral biology in ways that affect health. This will allow us to take more responsibility for our own health by changing the mind in ways that can impact the brain in healthy directions.
☛ We'll be able to develop a secular approach to provide methods and practices from contemplative traditions to
- teach teachers and children ways to better regulate emotions and attention and cultivate qualities like kindness and compassion.
- increase awareness of interdependence upon others and upon the planet and be more responsible caretakers of the environment and the planet.
- promote their widespread adoption into the public discourse and major institutions of culture thereby restoring civility, humility, gratitude and other virtues in human life.
Video presentation by Richard Davidson, Ph.D. (*1951) US American Vilas professor of psychology and psychiatry, Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2011 UW-Madison Big Learning Event, YouTube film, minute 18:06, 20:44 minutes duration, posted 20. June 2011
- The virtue that we need most of all is the virtue that Aristotle called practical wisdom. Practical wisdom is the moral will to do the right thing and the moral skill to figure out what the right thing is. [...] [The] stonemasons working on the Isle of Lesbos [...] need to measure out [...] round columns using a ruler. [...] They created a ruler that bends [...] a tape measure – a flexible rule, a rule that bends. [...] And Aristotle said often in dealing with other people, we need to bend the rules.
Dealing with other people demands a kind of flexibility that no set of rules can encompass. Wise people know when and how to bend the rules. Wise people know how to improvise. […] the rules are like the notes on the page, and that gets you started, but then you dance around the notes on the page, coming up with just the right combination for this particular moment with this particular set of fellow players. So for Aristotle, the kind of rule-bending, rule exception-finding and improvisation that you see in skilled craftsmen is exactly what you need to be a skilled moral craftsman. And in interactions with people, almost all the time, it is this kind of flexibility that is required. [...] And most important, a wise person does this improvising and rule-bending in the service of the right aims.
If you are a rule-bender and an improvisor mostly to serve yourself, what you get is ruthless manipulation of other people. So it matters that you do this wise practice in the service of others and not in the service of yourself. And so the will to do the right thing is just as important as the moral skill of improvisation and exception-finding. Together they comprise practical wisdom, which Aristotle thought was the master virtue.
Video presentation by Barry Schwartz, Ph.D. (*1946) US American US American professor of social theory and social action, psychologist, Swarthmore College, speaker, author, Using our practical wisdom, Transcript, presented by TED Talks, YouTube film, minute 5:38, 23:08 minutes duration, posted 3. January 2011
Birch tree in autumn
- Rules and incentives are no substitutes for wisdom. [...] there is no substitute for wisdom. [...]
You need to have rules. You need to have incentives. [...] the problem with relying on rules and incentives is that they demoralize professional activity [...] in two senses.
- First, they demoralize the people who are engaged in the activity. [...]
- And second, they demoralize the activity itself. The very practice is demoralized, and the practitioners are demoralized. It creates people – when you manipulate incentives to get people to do the right thing – it creates people who are addicted to incentives. That is to say, it creates people who only do things for incentives.
Video presentation by Barry Schwartz, Ph.D. (*1946) US American US American professor of social theory and social action, psychologist, Swarthmore College, speaker, author, Using our practical wisdom, Transcript, presented by TED Talks, YouTube film, minute 12:54, 23:08 minutes duration, posted 3. January 2011
- Courage is the most important of all the virtues, because without courage you can't practice any other virtue consistently. You can practice any virtue erratically, but nothing consistently without courage. Maya Angelou (1928-2014) US American historian, actress, producer, director, educator, civil-rights activist, playwright, poet, bestselling black author, cited in: Stedman Graham, Diversity. Leaders Not Labels, S. 224, 2006
- Virtue is its own reward. Saying
- Courage is not simply one of the virtues, but the form of every virtue at the testing point, which means at the point of highest reality. […]
A chastity or honesty or mercy which yields to danger will be chaste or honest or merciful only on conditions. Pilate was merciful till it became risky.
C. S. Lewis (1898-1963) Irish British literary scholar, literary secret agent of MI6, novelist, satirical Christian apologetic novel The Screwtape Letters, Geoffrey Bles, February 1942
- Virtue and vice were warp and woof of our first consciousness, and they will be the fabric of our last, and this despite any changes we may impose on field and river and mountain, on economy and manners. There is no other story. A man, after he has brushed off the dust and chips of life, will have left only the hard, clean questions: "Was it good or was it evil? Have I done well – or ill?" John Steinbeck (1902-1968) US American CIA agent, journalist, novelist, Pulitzer Prize laureate, 1940, Nobel laureate in literature, 1962, novel East of Eden, The Viking Press, 19. September 1952
- All novels, all poetry, are built on the never-ending contest in ourselves of good and evil. And it occurs to me that evil must constantly respawn, while good, while virtue, is immortal. Vice has always a new fresh young face, while virtue is venerable as nothing else in the world is. John Steinbeck (1902-1968) US American CIA agent, journalist, novelist, Pulitzer Prize laureate, 1940, Nobel laureate in literature, 1962, novel East of Eden, S. 412, The Viking Press, 19. September 1952
- Fools! who from hence into the notion fall
That vice or virtue there is none at all.
Is there no black or white?
Ask your own heart, and nothing is so plain;
'Tis to mistake them, costs the time and pain.
Vice is a monster of so frightful mien,
As, to be hated, needs but to be seen;
Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face,
We first endure, then pity, then embrace.
Englische Texte – English section on Virtue
Four agreements – Don Miguel Ruiz
| Recommendations for right livelihood|
|1.||Be impeccable with your word.|| Speak with integrity. Say only what you mean. Avoid using the word to speak against yourself or to gossip about others. Use the power of your word in the direction of truth and love.|
|2.||Don't·take·anything·personally.|| Nothing others do is because of you. What others say and do is a projection of their own reality, their own dream. When you are immune to the opinions and actions of others, you won't be the victim of needless suffering.|
|3.||Don't make assumptions.|| Find the courage to ask questions and to express what you really want. Communicate with others as clearly as you can to avoid misunderstandings, sadness and drama. With just this one agreement, you can completely transform your life.|
|4.||Always do your best.|| Your best is going to change from moment to moment; it will be different when you are healthy as opposed to sick. Under any circumstance, simply do your best, and you will avoid self-judgment, self-abuse and regret.|
Developmental stages of sexual union – Tao
| Three Daoist types of integrating Yin and Yang|
Quality of union
|Type of integration of |
Yin and Yang
| Biblical commandment|
| Fertile reproductive valley|| Mother's womb|
sperm and egg
| Be fruitful!|| Mortality|
| Fertile reproductive valley||Biological impulse|
Male sex organ and
female sex organ
| Sexual union|
of mature male and female partners
| Multiply!|| Mortality|
| Immeasurable heart|
| Inner being of the refined individual|
Yin and Yang fired upward
spirit with spirit,
mind with mind,
every cell with every cell of both bodies
Angelic mutual cultivation
| Practice of the integral way|
Selfawareness without ego
Refining of gross energy
to subtle light energy
In the body, not attached to it
Calm, relaxed, quiet, natural
| Be stewards to the Earth!|
Healing of addictions
Appeasing of negative impulses
Transcendent integration of the entire energy body
Mastery, Whole, virtuous
Mutual uplifting and transformation, bliss
Field for the
conception of higher life
Incomplete list of virtues
| Virtues are characteristics (valued as an ethical principle) of a person expressing |
individual moral excellence and enhancing collective well being.
|Temperance|| Self-control regarding pleasure|
|Good temper|| Self-control regarding anger|
|Ambition|| Self-control regarding one's goals|
|Curiosity|| Self-control regarding knowledge|
|Frugality (Thrift)|| Self-control regarding the material lifestyle|
|Industry|| Self-control regarding play, recreation and entertainment|
|Contentment|| Self-control regarding one's possessions and the possessions of others; |
acknowledgement and satisfaction of reaching capacity
|Continence|| Self-control regarding bodily functions|
|Courage|| Willingness to do the right thing in the face of danger, |
pain, significant harm or risk
|Patience|| Ability to delay or wait for what is desired|
|Perseverance|| Courageous patience, integrity|
|Persistence|| Ability to achieve objective regardless of obstacles|
|Fair-mindedness|| Concern that all get their due (including oneself) |
in cooperative arrangements of mutual benefit
|Tolerance|| Willingness to allow others to lead a life based on a certain set of beliefs |
differing from ones own
|Truthfulness/Honesty|| Telling someone what you believe to be true |
in the context of a direct inquiry
|Respect|| Regard for the worth of others|
|Self respect|| Regard for the worth of oneself|
|Social virtues|| Politeness, charisma, unpretentiousness, friendliness, |
|Kindness|| Regard for those who are within an individuals ability to help|
|Generosity|| Giving to those in need|
|Forgiveness|| Willingness to overlook transgressions made against you|
|Compassion|| Empathy and understanding for the suffering of others|
Links zum Tugenden / Virtues
External web links (engl.)
Audio- und Videolinks
Audio and video links (engl.)
- Video interview with John Bradshaw (1933-2016) US American philosopher, theologian, psychologist, educator, counselor, motivational speaker, author of Reclaiming Virtue, Moral Intelligence, presented by Houston PBS, program Living Smart, #?, host Patricia Gras (*1960) US American television anchor, reporter, journalist, YouTube film, 26:32 minutes duration, posted 11. August 2010
Definition of virtue, discussing how to live life with moral intelligence