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Philosophie

 

 

 

Apfelbaum, Schloss Belvedere
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)
österreichischer Maler

 


 

Wahre Philosophen

Der führende theoretische Quantenphysiker David Bohm ist nach Ansicht des Theologen Adolf von Harnack einer der wahren Philosophen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Bohm entwickelte aus den revolutionären Erkenntnissen der Quantenphysik die Theorie, dass neben dem manifestierten Anteil des Universums (explizite Ordnung) auch ein nicht manifestierter Anteil existiert, den er implizite Ordnung (Leerheit, die zugleich Fülle beinhaltet) oder Holomovement (altgriech. "holos" = ganz und lat. "movere" = bewegen) nannte. Alles irdisch Manifeste, was sich mit den Sinnen wahrnehmen lässt, ist die Folge einer ganzheitlichen Bewegung. Materie ist nach Bohm prädisponiertes, kondensiertes Licht und lediglich ein Tropfen im Meer der Energie und der impliziten Ordnung. Nach Bohm basiert Licht (Bewusstsein) weder Zeit noch Raum noch Geschwindigkeit. Es ist gleichzeitig Potential, Energie und Information, Kontext, Inhalt und Form.

 


Diogenes in der Tonne

Jeder gegenwärtige Augenblick ist zeitlos (atemporal). Einzelne Momente erfolgen nicht aufeinander und werden nicht zeitlich verknüpft, sondern innerhalb der impliziten Ordnung.  

 

Bei den Interferenzversuchen schickt man Lichtstrahlen durch eine bestimmte Anzahl von Schlitzen. Lichtüberlagerung ist die Quelle für die Verdunklung von Punkten, die ansonsten hell erscheinen. Die interferierenden schattenhaften Lichtstrahlen werden Photonen genannt, die nicht instrumentell messbar, jedoch durch ihre Störwirkung wahrnehmbar sind. Forschung hat festgestellt, dass die Anzahl der schattenhaften Photonen wesentlich größer ist als die der fassbaren sichtbaren Photonen. Jedes fassbare Photon wird von mindestens einer Billion schattenhafter Photonen begleitet. Somit wurde die Theorie Bohms von der impliziten Ordnung bestätigt, der sagt, dass die wahrnehmbare Welt im Verhältnis zum Urgrund allen Seins nur die Spitze des Eisbergs darstellt.

 

Quantenphysiker des 3. Jahrtausends sprechen nicht mehr von impliziter Ordnung, sondern von Paralleluniversen oder von einem Multiversum. Der israelisch-britische Physiker David Deutsch konstatiert, dass die Quantentheorie die Wechselwirkung des Wirklichen und des Möglichen beschreibt. Deutsch meint, dass es auf der Quantenebene nur so genannte Schnappschüsse gibt in einem raum- und zeitlosen Kontinuum (implizite Ordnung), das unendliche Möglichkeiten für unendliche Wirklichkeiten bereithält, die in der expliziten Ordnung Realität werden, wenn man sie aufsucht.
Aus der Sicht des Absoluten ist jeder erlebte Augenblick ein Ausdruck der raumzeitlosen Ewigkeit.

 

In der Welt der Erscheinungen nehmen Menschen aufgrund der Struktur des menschlichen Denk- und Fühlvermögens Geschehnisse als fortlaufende Geschichte (Nacheinander) und Räume und Gegenstände als nebeneinander liegend wahr.

Philosophische Dreiheit – Grammatik, Logik, Rhetorik

Philosophische Dreiheit – Trivium
༺༻AbfolgeDisziplinWahrheitBeurteilenGesetzmäßigkeitOrientierungEinsicht
1.EingabeGrammatikOntologischSein⇔NichtseinGesetz der Identität
WER
Existenz / Was ist? / RealitätMetaphysik
Esoterik
2.ProzessLogikVerhältnismäßigWahr⇔FalschGesetz der Gegensätzlichkeit
WARUM
Bewusstsein / Wissen / VerstandErkenntnis-
theorie
3AusgabeRhetorikMoralRichtig⇔FalschNaturrecht
WIE
Willensausdruck / Absicht / Rechtmäßiges HandelnMoralisch
Referenz: de.Wikipedia-Eintrag Trivium
Siehe auch: ► Lehrsysteme Trivium und Quadrivium – Die sieben freien Künste und ► Fragen

Zitate zum Thema Philosophie / Philosophy

Zitate allgemein

Seht zu, dass niemand euch einfange durch die Philosophie und leeren Betrug nach der Überlieferung der Menschen, nach den Elementen der Welt und nicht Christus gemäß! Paulus, Brief an die Kolosser 2, 8 (NT)

 

Persönliche Bekenntnisse

  • Auf meinen Reisen in Asien sind mir vielerlei Menschen begegnet – Heilige und Halunken. Ich muss sagen, noch jetzt staune ich darüber, wie sehr die Halunken mir weitergeholfen haben. Dorothea Berndt-Söffker, deutsche Autorin, Philosophie der Straße, Ch. Falk Verlag, 1993

 

Schlussfolgerung

  • Wir sind vervollkommbar, aber wir werden nie vollkommen. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809 -1865) französischer Ökonom, Soziologe, erster Vertreter des Anarchismus, Befürworter der Abschaffung der Ausbeutung und der Regierung des Menschen durch den Menschen, Philosophie du Progrès, S. 27-30, 1946

 

Einsichten

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Hebelgesetz – Archimedische Prinzip

  • Gib mir einen Punkt, wo ich sicher stehen kann, [einen Hebel, der lang genug ist,] und ich hebe die Erde aus den Angeln.
    [Original griech.: Dos moi pou sto kai kino taen gaen.]
    Archimedes von Syrakus (287-212 v. Chr.) altgriechischer Mathematiker, Physiker, Ingenieur, zitiert in: Pappos, griechischer Mathematiker, Astronom, Sammlung mathematischer Abhandlungen Synagoge, 4.Jh. n.Chr.

 

  • Der Gipfel der Klugheit ist es, philosophieren zu können und aus allem wie die emsige Biene entweder den Honig des schmackhaften Vorteils oder das Wachs für das Licht der Desillusion zu gewinnen. Wahre Philosophie ist nichts anderes als Meditation über den Tod, ist es doch nötig, ihn zuerst viele Male zu bedenken, um ihn dann ein einziges Mal gut zu bestehen. Baltasar Gracián (1601-1658) spanischer Jesuit, Hochschullehrer, Prosaschriftsteller des Barock, Der kluge Weltmann. El Discreto, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (dtv), 1. Mai 2004
  • Philosophie ist die Vorbereitung auf den Tod. Sokrates (469-399 v. Chr.) altgriechischer vorchristlicher Philosoph

 

  • Philosophieren heißt sterben lernen. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) französischer Politiker, Philosoph, Begründer der Essayistik, bedeutender Schriftsteller der Renaissance, Die Essays, 1580, Frankfurt am Main, August 1998

 

  • Das Denken ist das Selbstgespräch Seele. Platon (427-347 v. Chr.) vorchristlicher altgriechischer Philosoph, Begründer der abendländischen Philosophie

 

  • Gesetzt, es wären sämtliche Gesetze aufgehoben, so werden wir Philosophen doch in unserer Lebensweise keine Veränderung eintreten lassen. Aristippos von Kyrene (435-366 v. Chr.) altgriechischer Philosoph, Begründer der kyrenaischen Schule und des Hedonismus

 


Bauerngarten mit Sonnenblumen, Ölgemälde, ~1907
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) österreichischer Maler
  • Diejenigen, welche von der Philosophie nichts verstehen, schlagen zwar die Hände über den Kopf zusammen, wenn sie den Satz vernehmen: Das Denken ist das Sein. Dennoch liegt allem unserem Tun die Voraussetzung der Einheit des Denkens und des Seins zugrunde. Diese Voraussetzung machen wir als vernünftige, als denkende Wesen. Es ist jedoch wohl zu unterscheiden, ob wir nur denkende [mentierende Wesen] sind oder ob wir uns als denkende [erkennende Wesen] auch wissen. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) deutscher Philosoph des Deutschen Idealismus, Schriftsteller, Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, Kapitel "Das Denken", Heidelberg, 1817

 

  • Seit einem Jahrhundert liegt die Philosophie im Sterben und kann es nicht, weil ihre Aufgabe nicht erfüllt ist. Peter Sloterdijk (*1947) deutscher Professor für Philosophie, Universität Karlsruhe, Fernsehmoderator, Kulturwissenschaftler, Essayist, Kritik der zynischen Vernunft, 2 Bände, 1. Satz, Suhrkamp Verlag, 17. Auflage Januar 1983

 

  • Die meisten Philosophen sind ja eher ein unglückliches Volk und haben obendrein die trotzige Neigung, zu behaupten, das sei auch gut so. Außerdem wird die Suche nach dem Glück ohnehin unermesslich überinterpretiert. Zeitungsinterview mit Peter Sloterdijk (*1947) deutscher Professor für Philosophie, Universität Karlsruhe, Fernsehmoderator, Kulturwissenschaftler, Essayist, Macht Grübeln glücklich, Herr Sloterdijk?, präsentiert von der deutschen Bild-Zeitung, Rena Beeg, 19. April 2009

 

  • Die wahre Philosophie wird sich dadurch bewähren, dass die unzählbaren Widersprüche, von denen die Welt (aus jedem anderen Standpunkt gesehen) voll ist, in ihrem Lichte sich auflösen und verschwinden, hingegen Zusammenhang und Übereinstimmung überall zu finden sind. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) deutscher Philosoph, Hochschullehrer, Schriftsteller

 

  • Daher ist die Aufgabe nicht sowohl zu sehen was noch keiner gesehen hat, als bei Dem was Jeder sieht, zu denken was noch Keiner gedacht hat. Darum auch gehört so sehr viel mehr dazu, ein Philosoph als ein Physiker zu seyn. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) deutscher Philosoph, Hochschullehrer, Schriftsteller, zweibändige Sammlung von langen Aufsätzen Parerga und Paralipomena. Kleine Philosophische Schriften, Aufsatz Nr. 76, Verlag Hahn, 1851, Julius Frauenstädt, Verlag Hahn, Berlin, 1862

 

  • [W]ahre Erkenntnis ist immer liebende Erkenntnis und wo sie nicht liebt, ist sie nicht wahr. Max Weber (1864-1920) deutscher klassischer Soziologe, Sozialwissenschaftler, Nationalökonom, Sozialökonom, Physiker, Jurist, 1986

 

  • Die Philosophie ist schwierig, weil sie so einfach ist. Raphaël Enthoven (*1975) französischer Philosoph

 

  • "Statt mich aber im Hafen der Philosophie umzuschauen, welche Schaluppen oder Dampfer ich besteigen soll, [...] bleibt mir nichts anderes übrig, als mein eigenes Floß zu besteigen, um so mehr als ich mich mit ihm schon längst in diesem Ozean herumtreibe, ohne Ruder und ohne Segel. Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921-1990) Schweizer Schriftsteller, Dramatiker, Maler, Schweizer Maler, Dramatiker, Schriftsteller, Turmbau. Stoffe IV–IX, Diogenes, Zürich 1990

 

zu einem ganzheitlich fundierten Denksystem, das auf die größten Denker der Geschichte zurückgeht. Demzufolge ist sie die durch Jahrtausende gewachsene überlieferte 'Weisheit der Zeitalter'. Esoterische Philosophie, Studiengesellschaft (Broschüre), Hannover 2000

 

  • Philosophie erweist sich also als umfassende Seinswissenschaft. Diese Wissenschaft vom Seienden und vom Sein wurzelt in den verschiedenen Schichtungen der Menschennatur, und so wenig die Katze das Mausen lassen kann und der Bach das Rauschen, so wenig wird der Mensch – auf weite Sicht gesehen – das Philosophieren lassen können. Wenn auch immer wieder Meinungen aufkommen, dass man das reduzieren müsse auf das streng Rationale und Zweckmäßige, so werden doch immer wieder Zeiten kommen, wo man wieder erwacht zu der Notwendigkeit eines umfassenden Wissens vom Seienden, und das heißt eben der Philosophie. Wolfgang Schadewaldt (1900-1974) deutscher Literaturwissenschaftler, Altphilologe, Übersetzer, Lehrstuhlinhaber für Klassische Philologie und Antike, Universität Tübingen, Anfänge der Philosophie bei den Griechen, S. 30, Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1979

 

  • Philosophie wie Kunst zielen darauf, Staunen lebendig zu halten. Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969) deutscher internationaler Sozialphilosoph, Soziologe, Gesellschaftskritiker, Musiktheoretiker, Komponist, Begründer und Hauptvertreter der Frankfurter Schule, Ästhetische Theorie, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 1970

 

  • Ein Spezialist ist ein Mensch, der immer mehr von immer weniger weiß, bis er schließlich alles von nichts weiß.
    Ein Generalist ist ein Mensch, der immer weniger von immer mehr weiß, bis er schließlich nichts von allem weiß.
    Manager-Weisheit

 

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Wissenschaftsphilosophie

  • Inkommensurabilität leitet sich ab vom lateinischen mensura (Maß), bedeutet wörtlich übersetzt also "nicht zusammen messbar", "ohne gemeinsames Maß". de.Wikipedia

 

  • Das WARUM des Kindes ist der Beginn der Philosophie. Italienisches Sprichwort

Literaturzitate

  • Habe nun, ach, Philosophie, Juristerei und Medizin
    und leider auch Theologie durchaus studiert mit heißem Bemühen.
    Da steh' ich nun ich armer Tor und bin so klug als wie zuvor!
    (1749-1832) deutscher Universalgelehrter, Bühnendichter, Schriftsteller, Figur Mephisto im Drama Faust. Eine Tragödie, Kapitel 4, J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung, Tübingen, 1808

 

General quotes

Conclusion

  • You ask a philosopher a question and after he or she has talked for a bit, you don’t understand your question any more. Philippa Foot (1920-2010) British philosopher, known for her works in ethics, Steve Pyke, photographer, series of photographs of famous philosophers entitled De-mystifying the Modern Magicians, ~2010
  • Know that the philosopher has power over the stars, and not the stars over him. Paracelsus [Philippus von Hohenheim] (1493-1541) Swiss Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, general occultist

 

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Philosopher kings:

Plato claimed that the 'sailors' of the city-state over whom the philosopher is the potential ruler ignore the philosopher's "idle stargazing" because they have never encountered a true philosopher before.

  • [A] true pilot must of necessity pay attention to the seasons, the heavens, the stars, the winds, and everything proper to the craft if he is really to rule a ship. Plato (427-347 BC) Ancient Greek pre-Christian philosopher, founder of the occidental philosophy, The Republic, 6.488d, 360 BC

 

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Philosopher kings are the hypothetical rulers, or the guardians.

Source: Plato's utopian Kallipolis

  • Philosophers [must] become kings […] or those now called kings [must] […] genuinely and adequately philosophize. Plato (427-347 BC) Ancient Greek pre-Christian philosopher, founder of the occidental philosopher, The Republic, 5.473d, 360 BC

 

  • The wealth demanded by nature is both limited and easily procured: that demanded by idle imaginings stretch on into infinity. Epicurus (~341-~270/271 BC) ancient Greek philosopher, founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism, source unknown

 

  • Philosophy begins in wonder. And, at the end, when philosophic thought has done its best, the wonder remains. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) English mathematician, philosopher, pioneering integralist, metaphysical educator, author, Modes of Thought, chapter 3, lecture 7, S. 232, 1938

 

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Accidental first birth, conscious second birth

  • Wise men, the ancients believed, were a separate race, and to be born into this race it was necessary to develop the mind to a state of enlightened intelligence.
    The old philosophers taught that physical birth is an accident, for men are born into various races and nationalities according to the laws of generation; but there is a second birth, which is not an accident; it is the consequence of a proper intent.
    By this second birth man is born by enlightened intelligence out of nation and out of race into an international nation and an international race. It is this larger and coming race that will some day inherit the earth. But unless a man be born again by enlightenment, he shall not be a part of the philosophic empire. Manly Palmer Hall (1901-1990) Canadian-born mystic, occultist, 33rd degree Freemason, author, The Secret Destiny of America, S. 11, Philosophical Research Society, Los Angeles, California, 1944

 


Pallas Athena, Oil painting, 1898
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) Austrian painter
  • Therefore the problem is not so much, to see what nobody has yet seen, but rather to think concerning that which everybody sees, what nobody has yet thought. For this reason, it also takes very much more to be a philosopher than a physicist. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) German philosopher, faculty member, author, two volume collection of long essays, # 76 Parerga und Paralipomena, Hahn, Berlin, 1851

 

 

  • The method of all true philosophers: it is important to ask but there is no haste to provide the answer. Jostein Gaarder (*1952) Norwegian intellectual, author, Sophie's World, S. 340, published in English 1991, 1995

 

  • A philosophical question is by definition something that each generation, each individual, must ask over and over again. Jostein Gaarder (*1952) Norwegian intellectual, author, Sophie's World, S. 384, published in English 1991, 1995

 

 

  • Philosophy informs you about the expanse.
    Epistemology tells you the limit of that expanse.
    Geometry gives you a symbolic metaphor to grasp the expanse.
    Number lets you communicate with the expanse.
    And theology tells you what that expanse is.
    Marty Leeds, US American song writer, numerlogist, author, The Peacock's Tales. The Alchemical Writings of Claudia Pavonis, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, Paperback, 27. January 2014

 

  • A pessimist sees only the dark side of the clouds, and mopes;
    a philosopher sees both sides, and shrugs;
    an optimist doesn't see the clouds at all – he's walking on them.
    Leonard Louis Levinson (1904-1974) US American author, source unknown

 

 

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Philosophy of science

Commensurability

  • In 1962, Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend both independently introduced the idea of incommensurability to the philosophy of science. In both cases the concept came from mathematics and in its original sense is defined as the absence of a common unit of measurement that would allow a direct and exact measurement of two variables, such as the prediction of the diagonal of a square from the relationship of its sides. en.Wikipedia

 

  • Specialists [scientists] are people who know more and more about less and less, until they know everything about nothing.
    Generalists [philosophers, humanists] are people who know less and less about more and more, until they know nothing about everything.
    Manager wisdom

Literary quotes

  • All sciences are now under the obligation to prepare the ground for the future task of the philosopher, which is to solve the problem of value, to determine the true hierarchy of values. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) German classical scholar, philologist, critic of culture, philosopher of nihilism, writer, source unknown

 

  • Alas, I can see that you do not know what it means to be alone. Wherever there have been powerful societies, governments, religions, or public opinions – in short, wherever there was any kind of tyranny, it has hated the lonely philosopher; for philosophy opens up a refuge for man where no tyranny can reach: the cave of inwardness, the labyrinth of the breast; and that annoys all tyrant. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) German classical scholar, philologist, critic of culture, philosopher of nihilism, writer, essay Schopenhauer As Educator, published in 1874

Quotes by David R. Hawkins

⚠ Caveat See Power vs. Truth, January 2013

Bewusstseinswerte (BW): Griechische Philosophen und Denker – David R. Hawkins

⚠ Caveat See Power vs. Truth, January 2013

  • BW 745 – St. Paulus von Tarsus [Saulus von Tarsus vor der Bekehrung] (5-67 n. Chr.) türkisch-griechischer gebildeter, gesetzestreuer jüdischer Pharisäer, christlicher Apostel, Heiliger, Missionar des Urchristentums, erster Theologe der Christentums
  • BW 730 [Werk BW 503] – Plotin (205-270 n. Chr.) altgriechischer Philosoph
  • BW 540 – Sokrates (469-399 v. Chr.) altgriechischer vorchristlicher Philosoph
  • BW 515 – Origenes (184/185-253/254 n. Chr.) alexandrinisch-griechischer christlicher Kirchenvater, Gelehrter, Theologe, Kirchenschriftsteller
  • BW 498 – Aristoteles (384-322 v. Chr.) altgriechischer Philosoph, Arzt, Wissenschaftler, Frauenhasser
  • BW 490 – Dionysius Areopagita griechischer Beisitzer des Areopags, durch St. Paulus von Tarsus bekehrter erster christlicher Bischof von Athen
  • BW 485 – Hippokrates von Kos (~460-~370 v. Chr.) berühmter altgriechischer Arzt im Zeitalter von Perikles, Begründer der wissenschaftlichen Medizin, herausragende Figur der Medizingeschichte, Heiler
  • BW 485 – Platon (427-347 v. Chr.) vorchristlicher altgriechischer Philosoph, Begründer der abendländischen Philosophie
  • BW 470 – Euripides (480/485/484-406 v. Chr.) griechischer Philosoph, Schriftsteller
  • BW 465 – Sophokles (497/496-406/405 v. Chr.) klassischer altgriechischer Tragödiendichter
  • BW 460 – Plutarch [Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus] (45/46-120/125 n. Chr.) griechisch-römischer Historiker, Biograph, Schriftsteller, Mittelplatoniker, Priester im Apollontempel in Delphi
  • BW 455 – Archimedes von Syrakus (287-212 v. Chr.) altgriechischer Mathematiker, Physiker, Ingenieur
  • BW 450 – Galenus von Pergamon [Galen] (129/131-199//216 n. Chr.) griechischstämmiger römischer Arzt, Chirurg, Naturforscher und -philosoph
  • BW 440 – Herodot (~484-~424 v. Chr.) antiker griechischer Historiograph, Geograph, Völkerkundler
  • BW 440 – Euklid (~365-~300 v. Chr.) griechischer Mathematiker
  • BW 430 – Epiktet (~50-~138 n. Chr.) griechischer stoischer Philosoph
  • BW 425 – Äschylos [Aischylos] (525-456 v. Chr.) sizilienstämmiger griechischer Tragödiendichter
  • BW 420 – Apollonius von Rhodos (295-215 v. Chr.) griechischer Dichter, Gelehrter
  • BW 190Pythagoras von Samos (~570-495 v. Chr.) vorsokratischer ionisch-altgriechischer Philosoph, Mathematiker, Gründer der religiösen Bewegung Pythagoreismus


  • Thales von Milet (624-~546 v. Chr.) altgriechischer Naturphilosoph, Staatsmann, Mathematiker, Astronom, Ingenieur, einer der Sieben Weisen Griechenlands
  • Parmenides von Elea (540/535-483/475 v. Chr.) altgriechischer Philosoph, Begründer der Eleatischen Schule
  • Heraklit von Ephesos (535/520-475/460 v. Chr.) vorsokratischer altgriechischer Philosoph, Kritiker der oberflächlichen Realitätswahrnehmung und Lebensart
  • Pindar (~522/518-445 v. Chr.) altgriechischer lyrischer Dichter, Mitglied des Kanons der neun Lyriker
  • Perikles (490-429 v. Chr.) griechischer Staatsmann des antiken Athens, Redner
  • Demokrit (~460-370 v. Chr.) altgriechischer vorsokratischer Naturphilosoph
  • Xenophon (426-355 v. Chr.) griechischer Historiker, Schriftsteller, Händler, Politiker, Feldherr, Zeitgenosse und Bewunderer von Sokrates
  • Theophrastos von Eresos (~371-~287 v. Chr.) griechischer Philosoph, Naturforscher, Schüler und Nachfolger von Aristoteles, Leiter der peripatetischen Schule
  • Epikur (~341-~270/271 v. Chr.) griechischer Philosoph, Begründer des Epikureismus
  • Clemens von Alexandria [Titus Flavius Clemens] (~150-~215 n. Chr.) griechischer Gelehrter in klassischer griechischer Philosophie, konvertierter christlicher Theologe, Kirchenschriftsteller
  • Diogenes Laertios (~371-~287 n. Chr.) spätantiker griechischer Philosophiehistoriker, Biograph der griechischen Philosophen
  • Georges I. Gurdjeff (1866-1949) griechisch-armenischer Esoteriker, Schriftsteller, Choreograph, Komponist, Lehrer des "Vierten Wegs"

Englische Texte – English section on Philosophy

Philosophical trinity – Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric

Philosophical trinity – Trivium
༺༻SequenceSubjectTruthWeighingLawFocusInsight
1.InputGrammarOntologicalBeing ⇔ Non-beingLaw of identity
WHO
Existence / What is / RealityMetaphysics
2.ProcessLogicPropositionalTrue ⇔ FalseLaw of contradiction
WHY
Consciousness / Knowledge / ReasonEpistemology
3OutputRhetoricMoralRight ⇔ WrongNatural law
HOW
Voliton / Will / Right actionMorality
Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Trivium
See also: ► Teaching systems Trivium and Quadrivium – The seven liberal arts and ► Fragen – Questions

Psychedelic history of philosophy

Source: ► Article by Peter Sjöstedt-H, The Hidden Psychedelic History of Philosophy:
Plato, Nietzsche, and 11 Other Philosophers Who Used Mind-Altering Drugs
, presented by High Existence, MMXVI

 

  • The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) English mathematician, philosopher, pioneering integralist, metaphysical educator, author, Process and Reality, part II, chapter 1, §1, 1929, Free Press, corrected edition 1. July 1979

 

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Dionysus

  • There are indeed, as those concerned with the mysteries say, many who carry the thyrsus [staff/wand] but the worshipers of Dionysus [the true mystics] are few. These latter are, in my opinion, no other than those who have practiced philosophy in the right way. I have in my life left nothing undone in order to be counted among these as far as possible. Plato (427-347 BC) Ancient Greek pre-Christian founder of the occidental philosophy, writer, dialogue Phaedo [On the Soul], 69c-d, 385-378 BC

 

  • [W]ith a blessed company – we following in the train of Zeus, and others in that of some other god – […] saw the blessed sight and vision and were initiated into that which is rightly called the most blessed of mysteries, which we celebrated in a state of perfection […] being permitted as initiates to the sight of perfect and simple and calm and happy apparitions, which we saw in the pure light, being ourselves pure and not entombed in this which we carry about with us and call the body, in which we are imprisoned like an oyster in its shell. Plato (427-347 BC) Ancient Greek pre-Christian founder of the occidental philosophy, writer, dialogue Phaedrus, 250b-c, ~370 BC

 

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Ergot, LSD

  • [We can] assume that the barley grown [in the Rarian plain] was host to an ergot containing […] the soluble hallucinogenic alkaloids. The famous Rarian plain was adjacent to Eleusis. Indeed this may well have led to the choice of Eleusis for Demeter’s temple Dr. Albert Hofmann, supposedly the creator of LSD, cited in: R. Gordon Wasson (1898-1986) US American ethnomycologist, ethnobotany researcher, vice president of J.P. Morgan & Co., pioneer investigator of sacred indigenous mushroom rituals in Mexico in the 1950s, author, Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) Swiss chemist, discoverer, synthesizer, ingester of the drug LSD, 1943, author, Carl A. P. Ruck, Ph.D. (*1935) US American professor of mythology and religion, classical studies, Boston University, expert on ancient Greek ethnobotany, author, The Road to Eleusis. Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries, chapter 2, S. 42, North Atlantic Books, 1978, 30th anniversary edition 25. November 2008

 

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Opium

  • O just and righteous opium! […] thou bildest upon the bosom of darkness, out of the fantastic imagery of the brain, cities and temples […] beyond the splendours of Babylon […] thou hast the keys of Paradise, O just, subtle, and mighty opium! Thomas de Quincey (1785-1859) English essayist, autobiography Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, The London Magazine, 1821

 

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Opium

 

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Nitrous Oxide

 

  • Without the eye there can be no sensations of vision, and without the brain there could be no recollected visible ideas; but neither the optic nerve nor the brain can be considered as the percipient principle – they are but the instruments of a power which has nothing in common with them. […]
    The desire of glory, of honour, of immortal fame, and of constant knowledge, so usual in young persons of well-constituted minds, cannot, I think, be other than symptoms of the infinite and progressive nature of intellect. Humphry Davy (1778–1829) Cornish chemist, inventor, The Collected Works. Memoirs of the life of Sir Humphry Davy, Dialogue Four, Smith, Elder and Co., Cornhill, 1839

 

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Opium

  • By wine or opium we can intensify and considerably heighten our mental powers, but as soon as the right measure of stimulus is exceeded, the effect will be exactly the opposite. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) German philosopher, faculty member, author, essay On the Freedom of the Will, presented to the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences, chapter III, 1839

 

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Dionysus

  • There are two states in which man arrives at the rapturous feeling of existence, namely in dreaming and in intoxication. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) German classical scholar, critic of culture, philosopher of nihilism, writer, cited in: article The Dionysian Worldview, written in summer of 1870, presented by the peer-reviewed academic journal Journal of Nietzsche Studies,  Claudia Crawford, Penn State University Press, #13, Spring 1997

 

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Dionysus, intoxication

  • [Paraphrased summary] Nietzsche ends his philosophical career by speaking of his 'inspiration' in terms of hearing thunderous deific voices and stating that he is a 'disciple of the philosopher Dionysus', the forest god of intoxication. Between these two statements Nietzsche had ingested a variety of drugs, drugs that may have influenced his culture-shattering philosophy that decried the death of God: 'I am not a man, I am dynamite.'   Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) German classical scholar, critic of culture, philosopher of nihilism, writer, Walter Kaufmann, translator, autobiography Ecce homo. How One Becomes What One Is, Foreword, §2 and "Why I am a Destiny", §1, written 1888-1889, C. G. Naumann, Leipzig, 1908

In his autobiography Nietzsche spoke of the rare form of 'inspiration', which today is best understood and labeled as "auditory hallucination", in this case initiated by chemical means. Nietzsche came to hear Dionysus, as Socrates heard his daemon, and eventually he became Dionysus, signing off letters by the god’s name. Nietzsche's drugs may have made him into the god that returned to supersede Christ.

 

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Semilunacy

  • My dears, Lou and Rée: … Consider me, the two of you, as a semilunatic with a sore head who has been totally bewildered by long solitude. To this, I think, sensible insight into the state of things I have come after taking a huge dose of opium – in desperation. But instead of losing my reason as a result, I seem at last to have come to reason. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) German classical scholar, critic of culture, philosopher of nihilism, author, letter to close friends, mid-December 1882

Due to chronic migraines, nausea and convulsions, Nietzsche frequently took opium.

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Artane (trihexyphenidyl)

  • I went across the road, as I often did, for a cup of coffee and a sandwich. As I was stirring the coffee it suddenly turned green, then purple. I looked up, startled, and saw a huge proboscidean head, like an elephant seal. Panic seized me; I slammed a five-dollar note on the table and ran across the road to a bus on the other side. But all the passengers on the bus seemed to have smooth white heads like giant eggs, with huge glittering eyes like the faceted compound eyes of insects – their eyes seemed to move in sudden jerks, which increased the feeling of their fearfulness and alienness. Oliver Sacks (1933-2015) British neurologist, naturalist, author, Hallucinations, chapter VI, S. 115-116, Knopf/Picador, division of Random House, 6. November 2012

 

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Artane (trihexyphenidyl)

  • [A] spider called out "Hello!" […] I said, "Hello yourself," and with this we started a conversation, mostly on rather technical matters of analytic philosophy. Perhaps this direction was suggested by the spider's opening comment: did I think that Bertrand Russell had exploded Frege's paradox? Oliver Sacks (1933-2015) British neurologist, naturalist, author, Hallucinations, chapter VI, S. 109, Knopf/Picador, a division of Random House, 6. November 2012

Sacks had a relevant experience on Artane (trihexyphenidyl).

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Nitrous Oxide, ether

  • Nitrous oxide and ether, especially nitrous oxide […] stimulate the mystical consciousness in an extraordinary degree. […] [In] the nitrous oxide trance we have a genuine metaphysical revelation. […] [Our] normal waking consciousness, rational consciousness as we call it, is but one special type of consciousness, whilst all about it, parted from it by the filmiest of screens, there lie potential forms of consciousness entirely different. William James, M.D. (1842-1910) US American physician, professor of psychology and philosophy, Harvard University, pragmatic author, The Varieties of Religious Experiences, chapter XVI, Random House, 1929, Touchstone, 1. April 1997

 

  • The drift of all evidence we have seems to me to sweep us very strongly towards the belief in some form of superhuman life with which we may, unknown to ourselves, be co-conscious. […] The analogies with ordinary psychology and the facts of pathology, with those of psychical research, so called, and with those of religious experience, establish, when taken together, a decidedly formidable probability in favor of a general view of the world almost identical with Fechner's. William James, M.D. (1842-1910) US American physician, professor of psychology and philosophy, Harvard University, pragmatic author, A Pluralistic Universe, chapter VIII, 1908, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 17. November 2012

 

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Nitrous Oxide

  • Nitrous oxide gas-intoxication […] made me understand better than ever before both the strength and the weakness of Hegel’s philosophy. I strongly urge others to repeat the experiment […] its first result was to make peal through me with unutterable power the conviction that Hegelism was true after all. William James, M.D. (1842-1910) US American physician, professor of psychology and philosophy, Harvard University, pragmatic author, The Subjective Effects of Nitrous Oxide, presented by the quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal Mind, published since 1876 by Oxford University Press, volume 7, 1882

 

  • I believed myself to be to be present before a superb spectacle – generally the sight of a landscape of intense colours, through which I was travelling at high speed and which gave me such a profound impression of reality that I could not believe, during the first moments of waking up, that it was a simple dream. […] How I would like you to pursue this study of 'the noetic value of abnormal mental states'! Your article [A Suggestion about Mysticism], combined with what you have said in The Varieties of Religious Experiences, opens up great perspectives for us in this direction. Henri Bergson (1859-1941) influential French philosopher, Nobel laureate in literature, 1927, letter to William James, M.D., cited in: Keith Ansell Pearson, John Mullarkey, editors, Key Writings, A&C Black, 22. April 2002

 

  • Reflecting on my experience, I find myself agreeing with the eminent Cambridge philosopher, Dr C. D. Broad, "that we should do well to consider […] the type of theory which Bergson put forward […]. The suggestion is that the function of the brain and nervous system and sense organs is in the main eliminative and not productive."   Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) English US American visionary humanist, pacifist, counterculture hero, poet, dystopian essayist, writer on parapsychology and philosophical mysticism, The Doors of Perception, S. 10, Chatto & Windus, United Kingdom, Harper & Row, United States, 1954

On the psychedelic experience

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LSD studies

  • Our studies have begun to lay bare the workings underlying the changing states of consciousness. With a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these states we can learn to use them better, to manipulate our consciousness, to our own and societies' advantage. William James, M.D. explains it like seeing through the veils of perception. Huxley describes the ego as a reducing valve of the brain. How right they were. Now, for the first time we have seen the empirical basis of these realisations. Blog article offering an extract of the talk by Countess Amanda Feilding (*1943) English drug policy reformer, executive director of the Beckley Foundation, artist, at a launching event, sponsored by The Royal Society, London, The Coming of Age of LSD, presented by the US American liberal-oriented online newspaper The Huffington Post, 12. April 2016, updated 13. April 2016

On the 2016 ground-breaking brain-imaging studies carried out upon subjects on LSD at Imperial College, sponsored by The Beckley Foundation

 

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Psychedelics

  • Psychedelics are thought of as 'mind-expanding' drugs so it has commonly been assumed that they work by increasing brain activity, but surprisingly, we found that psilocybin actually caused activity to decrease in areas that have the densest connections with other areas. These hubs constrain our experience of the world and keep it orderly. We now know that deactivating these regions leads to a state in which the world is experienced as strange. David John Nutt, Ph.D. (*1951) British psychiatrist, neuropsychopharmacologist, researcher of drugs that affect the brain and addiction, anxiety and sleep, cited in: article Magic mushrooms' effects illuminated in brain imaging studies, presented by Imperial College, London, Sam Wong, 24. January 2012

Similarly, Nutt endorsed earlier research on psilocybin, a psychoactive chemical within magic mushrooms.

  • If you want to understand consciousness, you've got to study psychedelics. David John Nutt, Ph.D. (*1951) British psychiatrist, neuropsychopharmacologist, researcher of drugs that affect the brain and addiction, anxiety and sleep, cited in: Video interview WHY LSD IS IMPORTANT, YouTube film, minute 3:18, 4:18 minutes duration, posted 14. April 2016

 

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Marijuana

 

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Marijuana

  • [T]here is functional displacement. […] [S]omeone gave me one of Kafka's books ’’Betrachtung. I read the title. But then the book at once changed into the book-in-the-writer's-hand, which it becomes for the (perhaps somewhat academic) sculptor who confronts the task of sculpting that particular writer. It immediately became integrated into the sculptural form of my own body. Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic, translator, essayist, On Hashish'', chapter II, 15. January 1928, Harvard University Press, 2. June 2006

 

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Marijuana, morphine

  • One of the core ideas of Benjamin's ground breaking essay [magnum opus The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction] is to observe that modern means of technical reproduction strip pieces of art of their aura. A photograph of an object can be reproduced and seen anywhere in the world, taking the object out of its spatio-temporal and historical-cultural context. Referencing Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic, translator, essayist, in: Dr. Sebastian Marincolo, German philosopher, author, What Hashish Did To Walter Benjamin. Mind-Altering Essays on Marijuana, part III, S. 138, Khargala Press, 20. November 2015

Benjamin possibly died from suicide by morphine overdose.

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LSD

  • What interested me above all was the relationship of these [ psychedelic ] substances to productivity. It has been my experience, however, that creative achievement requires an alert consciousness, and that it diminishes under the spell of drugs. On the other hand, conceptualization is important, and one gains insights under the influence of drugs that indeed are not possible otherwise. Ernst Jünger (1895-1998) German entomologist, soldier and officer, dandy, author, letter to his friend Hofmann dated 3. March 1948, cited in: Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) Swiss chemist, discoverer, synthesizer, ingester of the drug LSD, author, LSD. My Problem Child. LSD Experience and Reality, S. 74, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980

 

  • These things should only be tried in small circles. I cannot agree with the thoughts of Huxley that possibilities for transcendence could here be given to the masses. Indeed, this does not involve comforting fictions, but rather realities, if we take the matter earnestly. Ernst Jünger (1895-1998) German entomologist, soldier and officer, dandy, author, letter to his friend Hofmann dated 17. December 1961, cited in: Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) Swiss chemist, discoverer, synthesizer, ingester of the drug LSD, author, LSD. My Problem Child. LSD Experience and Reality, S. 74, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980

 

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LSD, psilocybin

  • The next and last thrust into the inner universe together with Ernst Jünger, this time again using LSD, led us very far from everyday consciousness. We came close to the ultimate door. Of course this door, according to Ernst Jünger, will in fact only open for us in the great transition from life into the hereafter. Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) Swiss chemist, discoverer, synthesizer, ingester of the drug LSD, author, LSD. My Problem Child. LSD Experience and Reality, chapter 7, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980

Albert Hofmann and Ernst Jünger took LSD and psilocybin together on a number of occasions. It seems that the experience had a more profound veridical aspect for Jünger, touching upon matters spiritual, metaphysical, eschatological.

 

  • Reality is inconceivable without an experiencing subject, without an ego. It is the product of the exterior world, of the sender and of a receiver, an ego in whose deepest self the emanations of the exterior world, registered by the antennae of the sense organs, become conscious. If one of the two is lacking, no reality happens, no radio music plays, the picture screen remains blank. Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) Swiss chemist, discoverer, synthesizer, ingester of the drug LSD, author, LSD. My Problem Child. LSD Experience and Reality, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980

Albert Hofmann didn't invent LSD. He was sent to Pont-St. Espirit to plant the false story about ergotamine poisioning at the town bakery which CIA hack John G. Fuller then reinforced with his book The Day of St. Anthony's Fire.

 

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Western morality

  • The Western attitude is unwholesome. It is moral. Morality, the great isolator, the great separator, divides man in half. To return to the unity of the vision is to reconcile body, soul, and the world. […] [ Psychedelic] [d]rugs are nihilistic: they undermine all values and radically overturn all our ideas about good and evil, what is just and what is unjust, what is permitted and what is forbidden. Octavio Paz (1914-1998) Mexican diplomat, poet, writer, Nobel laureate in literature, 1990, Alternating Current, chapter 2, S. 83-86, 12. August 1967, Arcade Publishing, 18. January 1991, reprint edition 7. July 2015

 

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Drug trip

  • [An] established society imposes upon all its members the same medium of perception […].
    The "trip" involves the dissolution of the ego shaped by the established society – an artificial and short-lived dissolution. But the artificial and "private" liberation anticipates, in a distorted manner, an exigency of the social liberation: the revolution must be at the same time a revolution in perception which will accompany the material and intellectual reconstruction of society, creating the new aesthetic environment.
    Awareness of the need for such a revolution in perception, for a new sensorium, is perhaps the kernel of truth in the psychedelic search. Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979) German-American philosopher, sociologist, political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School, An Essay on Liberation, chapter 2, S. 36-37, Beacon Press Books, 1969

 

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Mescaline

  • Since I had been experimenting with Lagache, who's rather saturnine and who said to me, "What it does to you is terrible!", I ended up having all sorts of unpleasant images. My first contact with mescaline took place in a partially-lighted room in which all objects changed shape according to real perspective. […] [T]here was an umbrella hanging on a coat rack, and I had the impression it was a vulture. The cloth part of the umbrella became the wings, and then there was a neck and a kind of beak. It was seen like that. […] And when I left I had strange visions, too. I saw a man as a toad running in the street. And finally, when I got back to Rouen, I saw Beaver's shoe as a big fat fly. […] I immediately foresaw that all this was leading me – why I can’t imagine – to chronic hallucinatory psychosis. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) French philosopher, proponent of existentialism, literary critic, publicist, dramatist, romancier, transcription of the film Sartre by Himself, directed Alexandre Astruc and Michel Contat, published 27. January 1969, S. 37-38, Urizen Books, 1. January 1978

For Sartre, the mescaline experience had its price, a price of terror.

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LSD and opium

  • We can easily see how LSD inverts the relationships of ill humor, stupidity, and thought: it no sooner eliminates the supremacy of categories than it tears away the ground of its indifference and disintegrates the gloomy dumbshow of stupidity; and it presents this univocal and a categorical mass not only as variegated, mobile, asymmetrical, decentered, spiraloid, and reverberating but causes it to rise, at each instant, as a swarming of phantasm-events. Michel Foucault (1926-1984) French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, philologist, literary critic, author, essay Theatrum Philosophicum, presented by Critique #282, S. 885-908, 1970

Referencing LSD and opium in relation to Deleuze's book The Logic of Sense

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Mysticism

  • [The] essence of great experience is penetration into the unknown, the unexperienced […]. If you like to phrase it so, philosophy is mystical. For mysticism is direct insight into depths as yet unspoken. But the purpose of philosophy is to rationalize mysticism: not by explaining it away, but by the introduction of novel verbal characterizations, rationally coordinated. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) English mathematician, philosopher, pioneering integralist, metaphysical educator, author, Modes of Thought, chapters 3-9, 1938, Touchstone, reissue edition 1. February 1968

Black cat analogy

  • Philosophy is like being in a dark room and looking for a black cat.
  • Metaphysics is like being in a dark room and looking for a black cat that isn't there.
  • Theology is like being in a dark room and looking for a black cat that isn't there, and shouting "I found it!"
  • Science is like being in a dark room looking for a black cat using a flashlight.

 

Reference: en.Wikipedia entry Black cat analogy

Level of consciousness (LoC) calibrations: Greek philosophers and thinkers – David R. Hawkins

  • LoC 745 – Paul the Apostle [Saul of Tarsus, Saint Paul] (5-67 AD) most influential Turkish Greek Jewish pharisee, missionary in the early Christian communities across the Roman Empire
  • LoC 730 – Plotinus (205-270 AD) Greek philosopher
  • LoC 540 – Socrates (469-399 BC) Ancient Greek pre-Christian philosopher
  • LoC 515 – Origen (184/185-253/254 AD) early Alexandrian Greek Church Father, scholar, theologian, Church writer
  • LoC 498 – Aristotle (384-322 BC) Greek philosopher, physician, scientist, misogynist
  • LoC 490 – Saint Dionysius the Areopagite Greek judge of the Areopagus, first Christian Bishop of Athens converted by Paul the Apostle
  • LoC 485 – Hippocrates of Cos [Father of Western medicine] (~460-~370 BC) ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, outstanding figure in the history of medicine, healer
  • LoC 485 – Plato (427-347 BC) Ancient Greek pre-Christian philosopher, founder of the occidental philosophy
  • LoC 470 – Euripedes (480/485/484-406 BC) Ancient Greek philosopher, writer
  • LoC 465 – Sophocles (497/496-406/405 BC) Ancient Greek tragedian
  • LoC 460 – Plutarch [Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus] (45/46-120/125 AD) Greek-Roman historian, biographer, essayist, Middle Platonist, priest at the temple of Apollon in Delphi
  • LoC 455 – Archimedes (~287-212 BC) Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer
  • LoC 450 – Claudius Galenus [Galen of Pergamon] (129/131-199/216 AD) prominent Greek Roman physician, surgeon, researcher, philosopher
  • LoC 440 – Herodotus (~484-~424 BC) ancient Greek historician, geographer, ethniticist
  • LoC 440 – Euclid (~365-~300 BC) Greek mathematician
  • LoC 430 – Epictetus (60-100 AD) Greek stoic philosopher
  • LoC 425 – Aeschylus (525/524-456/455 BC) first of the three ancient Greek tragedians
  • LoC 420 – Apollonios von Rhodos (295-215 BC) Greek scholar, poet, writer
  • LoC 190Pythagoras of Samos (~570-495 BC) Ionian Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism


  • Thales of Miletus (624-~546 BC) pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, statesman, mathematician, astronomer, engineer, one of the Seven Sages of Greece
  • Parmenides of Elea (540/535-483/475 BC) ancient Greek philosopher, founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy
  • Heraclitus of Ephesus (535/520-475/460 BC) pre-Socratic Ancient Greek philosopher
  • Pindar (~522/518-445 BC) Ancient Greek lyric poet
  • Pericles (490-429 BC) Greek statesman of Ancient Athens, orator
  • Democritus (~460-370 BC) Ancient Greek philosopher
  • Xenophon (430-354 BC) Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, contemporary and admirer of Socrates
  • Theophrastus (~371-287 BC) Greek philosopher, successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school, botanist, humorist, naturalist
  • Epicurus (~341-~270/271 BC) ancient Greek philosopher, founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism
  • Clement of Alexandria (150-215 AD) Greek scholar in classical Greek philosophy and literature, converted Christian theologian, Catechetical School of Alexandria
  • Diogenes Laërtius (~371-~287 AD) Greek biographer of the Greek philosophers
  • George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866-1949) Greek Armenian metaphysician, writer, choreograph, composer, spiritual teacher of the "Fourth Way"

 

Links zum Thema Philosophie / Philosophy

Veranstaltungen

Online course

  • Free 7 weeks long online course: Introduction to Philosophy, presented by coursera.org, The University of Edinburgh, tutors Dave Ward, Duncan Pritchard, Michela Massimi, Suilin Lavelle, Matthew Chrisman, Allan Hazlett, Alasdair Richmond, starting January 2013

Literatur

Nach Aldous Huxley ist die Philosophia perennis die "konvergierende religiöse Weisheit aller Kulturen".

Zitate von antiken Philosophen

Führung durch die Philosophiegeschichte

Anekdoten

Literature (engl.)

Wikipedia entry Perennial philosophy

  • Peter Sloterdijk (*1947) German cultural scientist, professor of philosophy, Universität Karlsruhe, TV host, essayist, Critique of Cynical Reason, two volumes, [1983] University of Minnesota Press, 1987, 1989

Externe Weblinks


External web links (engl.)


Thales, Anaximander, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides and Zeno, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus and Democritus


Audio- und Videolinks

BR-alpha Videolinks – Philosophen-Serie Denker des Abendlandes

BR-alpha online Videoserie Denker des Abendlandes, präsentiert von dem deutschen Fernsehsender Bayerischen Rundfunk (BR online), Austausch zwischen den Gastgebern Harald Lesch (*1960) deutscher Professor für Physik, LMU München, Professor für Naturphilosophie, Hochschule für Philosophie München, Astrophysiker, Naturphilosoph, Wissenschaftsjournalist, Fernsehmoderator, und Wilhelm Vossenkuhl (*1945) deutscher Professor für Philosophie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Philosoph der Gegenwart, Autor


Audio and video links (engl.)

Concept of Ataraxia

 

Interne Links

Hawkins

 

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