SpiritualWiki

Wiki / Psychologie

Wiki-Menu:  

2·2012


Hawkins-Menu:


 

(Positive) Psychologie – Psychiatrie

 

 

Psyche
John William Waterhouse (1849-1917)
britischer Maler

 


 

Wortherkunft

Die Übersetzung des Wortes "Psychologie" (aus dem Griechischen ψυχολογία) bedeutet "Lehre von der Seele" und ist als solche für alle spirituell interessierten Menschen von großer Bedeutung.

 

Im wissenschaftlichen Mainstream hat die Psychologie die Seele weitgehend verloren und wird als "die empirische Wissenschaft zur Beschreibung, Erklärung und Vorhersage (Prognose) vom Erleben und Verhalten des Menschen, deren Entwicklung in der Lebensspanne und deren inneren und äußeren Ursachen und Bedingungen" definiert.

Erkenntnisse der Glücksforschung

12% der Deutschen sind "Glücklich Erblühte". – So lautet das Ergebnis einer europäischen Glücksstudie der britischen Psychologin Prof. Felicia Huppert der Universität Cambridge in England und Direktorin des Well-being Institutes.

 

Nach langjähriger Glücksforschung fand die amerikanische Professorin für (Positive) Psychologie an der Universität von North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Dr. Barbara Fredrickson, die 3-zu-1-Formel für innere Zufriedenheit.
Wenn man jeweils einem schlechten Erlebnis drei gute gegenüberstellt, entfaltet sich ein wohliges Grundgefühl in einem.
Es lohnt sich, jedem aufkommenden negativen Gedanken, den man bewusst wahrnimmt, mindestens drei positive gegenüberzustellen.

Gestalttherapie – Anekdote von Fritz Perls

Frederick S. Perls, der US-amerikanische Vater der Gestalttherapie, Autor von Büchern wie Das Ich, der Hunger und die Aggression wollte auch in seiner Sterbestunde im Krankenhaus die Kontrolle  behalten:
Eine Krankenschwester berichtet davon, dass sie dem sterbenskranken Perls geraten hatte, im Bett zu bleiben und die Bettpfanne zu benutzen, anstatt zur Toilette zu gehen, da ihm das Aufstehen gegenwärtig das Leben kosten könne. Ungeachtetdessen hievte er sich aus dem Bett und sagte:

Niemand sagt mir, was ich tun soll.

Es waren seine letzten Worte, ehe er zu Boden fiel und starb.

 

  • I am I – and you are you.
    I am not in this world to live up to your expectations.
    And you are not in this world to live up to mine.
    I do my thing – and you do your thing
    and if by chance we meet – it's beautiful.
    And if not – it can't be helped.
    Fritz Perls (1893-1970) German-born US American psychiatrist, psychotherapist, Gestalt Therapy pioneer

Kriterien für psychische Gesundheit

Sich "angstfrei, akzeptiert, geliebt und liebevoll, achtenswert und geachtet zu fühlen" erfüllt nach dem Psychologen Abraham Maslow die Anforderungen für seelische Gesundheit.

 

Abraham Maslow, der bekannte US-amerikanische Glücksforscher, übersuchte in den sechziger Jahren im Rahmen einer Studie zur psychologischen Gesundheit dreitausend Collegestudenten, ob sie den Kriterien für psychische Gesundheit erfüllten.
Unter allen Kandidaten fand Maslow nur einen einzigen geeigneten Probanden, der die Kriterien erfüllte.

Klassische psychologische Experimente

Liste der klassischen Experimente in der Psychologie
༺༻JahrPsychologisches ExperimentExperimentator / StudienleiterLebenszeit
1.1948Selbsterfüllende ProphezeiungRobert K. Merton(1910-2003)1
2.1956Kognitive DissonanzLeon Festinger et al.(1919-1989)2
3.1956Theorie der KonformitätSolomon Asch(1907-19963
4.1959Theorie der Zwangserfüllung
Forced Compliance
Leon Festinger
James M. Carlsmith
(1919-1989)
(*1959)4
5.1963Theorie der BewusstseinskontrolleRobert Jay Lifton(*1926)5
6.1966Behavioristische Verstärkerpläne:
Theorie der Kontrollüberzeugungen
Julian B. Rotter(*1916)6
7.1966Selektive WahrnehmungRaul Hernandez-Peon(1924-1968)7
8.1969DeindividuationPhilip G. Zimbardo(*1933)8
9.1972Rosenhan-Experiment
Zuverlässigkeit der psychiatrischen Diagnose von Patienten
David Rosenhan(1929-2012)
10.1974AttributionstheorienIrving B. Weiner(*1933)9
11.1974Gehorsamkeitsbereitschaft gegenüber AutoritätenStanley Milgram(1933-1984)10
12.1975Experiment der erlernten HilflosigkeitMartin Seligman, Ph.D.(*1942)11
13.1979Libet-ExperimentBenjamin Libet(1916-2007)
Quellen:
► G. Krampen, IPC-Fragebogen zu Kontrollüberzeugungen, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1981
► U. Klages, Fragebogen irrationaler Einstellungen (FIE), Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1989
► D. Beckmann, E. Brähler, H.-E. Richter, Der Gießen-Test (GT), 4. überarbeitete Auflage Verlag Hans Huber,  Bern, 1990
Diagnostisches und Statistisches Manual Psychischer Störungen. DSM IV, 2. verbesserte Auflage Hogrefe, Göttingen, Herausgeber American Psychiatric Association, 1998
Source: ► Carol Giambalvo, article Post-Cult Problems: An Exit Counselor's Perspective, published by AFF News, volume 01, No. 02, 1995, cited in: Micheal Langone, Ph.D., US American counseling psychologist specialized in research about "cultic" groups and psychological manipulation, executive director of the International Cultic Studies Association (ICSA), editor of the journal Cultic Studies Review (editor), Recovery from Cults. Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1st edition 17. June 1995
Quelle: ► de.Wikipedia Eintrag Liste der klassischen Experimente in der Psychologie
Siehe auch: ► Kontrolle

Zitate zum Thema (Positive) Psychologie und Psychotherapie / (Positive) Psychology

Zitate allgemein

Empfehlungen

  • Wenn wir die Menschen nur nehmen, wie sie sind, so machen wir sie schlechter
    wenn wir sie behandeln als wären sie, was sie sein sollten, so bringen wir sie dahin, wohin sie zu bringen sind.
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) deutscher Universalgelehrter, Bühnendichter, Schriftsteller, Entwicklungsroman Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, Buch VIII, Kapitel 4, Johann Friedrich Unger, Berlin, 1795-1796, Herausgeber Erich Trunz, Goethe Werk, Hamburger Ausgabe in 14 Bänden, Verlag C.H.Beck, München, 2008
  • Nach allem, was wir wissen, führt der Weg zu einem besseren Leben nicht über Euphorie oder Ekstase, sondern über die unscheinbare 3-zu-1-Formel. Interview mit Dr. Barbara Fredrickson (*1964) US-amerikanische Professorin für (Positive) Psychologie, Universität von North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Glücksforscherin, Templeton-Preis-Trägerin, präsentiert von der deutschen Monatsfachzeitschrift Psychologie Heute, Datum unbekannt

 

  • Die Psychologie hat in ihrer langen Geschichte stets einen starken Hang zur monadischen Auffassung vom Menschen gezeigt und daher zur Reifikation (Verdinglichung) dessen, was sich nun mehr und mehr als komplexe Strukturen (patterns) und Wechselwirkungen erweist. Paul Watzlawick (1921-2007) österreichisch-amerikanischer Kommunikationswissenschaftler, Psychotherapeut, Psychoanalytiker, Soziologe, Philosoph, Autor, Janet H. Beavin, Don D. Jackson, Menschliche Kommunikation. Formen, Störungen, Paradoxien, 'Pragmatische Axiome – ein Definitionsversuch', S. 23, Huber Hans, Erstauflage 1967, 10. unveränderte Auflage März 2000

 

  • Die meisten Leute erzählen einem, dass sie aus dem Kindergarten heraus wollen. Glauben Sie ihnen nicht. Glauben Sie ihnen wirklich nicht! Alles, was sie wollen, ist, ihr kaputtes Spielzeug wieder repariert bekommen:
    "Ich möchte meine Frau wiederhaben.
    Ich möchte meinen Arbeitsplatz wiederhaben.
    Ich möchte mein Geld wiederhaben, mein Ansehen, meinen Erfolg!"
Nur das möchten sie: ihr Spielzeug zurück. Das ist alles. Sogar der beste Psychologe wird Ihnen sagen, dass die Leute eigentlich nicht geheilt werden wollen. Was sie wollen, ist Linderung und Trost, denn eine Heilung ist schmerzhaft. Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) indischer katholischer Jesuitenpriester, Psychotherapeut, spiritueller Führer, Autor, Quelle unbekannt

[Paraphrasiert Kurzfassung] Schwache Leistungen (Erfassen von Texten, Schachspielen, Autofahren) von Amerikanern (nicht Asiaten) gehen mit größerer Selbstüberschätzung einher als stärkere Leistungen. Unwissenheit führt (bei Amerikanern) oft zu mehr Selbstvertrauen als Wissen und Erfahrung.
Die Schlussfolgerung von Studienserien der beiden Wissenschaftler Justin Kruger und David Dunning an der Cornell Universität (1999) bescheiningt unerfahrenen (ignoranten) Menschen
➤ neigen dazu, ihre Fähigkeiten zu überschätzen,
➤ können überlegene Fähigkeiten bei anderen nicht erkennen,
➤ können das Ausmaß ihrer Inkompetenz nicht zu erkennen,
➤ können durch Bildung/Übung ihre Kompetenz steigern,
➤ können durch Bildung/Übung lernen, sich und andere besser einzuschätzen.
➤ Die Geschicklichkeit, die erforderlich ist, um die Lösung zu finden, ermöglicht auch die Erkenntnis, dass die richtige Antwort gefunden wurde.

General quotes

Personal avowals

 

(↓)

Remark on his own legacy

  • I feel I'm regarded [by my psychiatric colleagues] as a brilliant man who is pretty disturbed. Documentary featuring Ronald D. Laing (1927-1989) British Scottish psychiatrist, author, presented by US American TV Channel 4, 1989

 

(↓)

Famous psychiatrist neglects the children of his first family.

  • It was ironic that my father became well known as a family psychiatrist when in the meantime he had nothing to do with his first family. Me and my sisters and brother felt like the abandoned ones because Dad had a new, second family – out of sight, out of mind. But by the time I was a teenager, when my brother and I went to stay with him in 1973, I started to have a relationship with dad independent of my mother. Fundamentally, dad was about choice and consent and behaving in a way that is going to make your mind and life better and not postponing that by getting sidetracked into medication. But by the same token there was a very radical, wild side to him. By the 1980s, around the time of the final split of his second marriage, he did succumb to heavy drinking. And that, to me, was always the dividing line between what sort of dad I was going to encounter: the sober dad or the drunken, raging dad. When sober, he was on good form: articulate, calm and clear-minded. Adrian, R.D. Laing's son with his first wife, Anne, cited in: article RD Laing: Was the counterculture's favourite psychiatrist a dangerous renegade or a true visionary?, presented by the centre-left British online newspaper The Independent, Maureen Paton, 30. November 2015

Fifty years after Ronald David Laing set up his experimental mental-health facility – without locks or drugs – a play and a film aim to examine his legacy. Laing fathered a total of six sons and four daughters by four women.

 

(↓)

Futility of psychotherapy

The senior editor of PT described Dr. Eysenck as "one of the world's best-known and most respected psychologists."

  • I have argued in the past and quoted numerous experiments in support of these arguments, that there is little evidence for the practical efficacy of psychotherapy [...] the evidence on which these views are based is quite strong and is growing in strength every year. Hans Jürgen Eysenck, Ph.D. (1916-1997) German-British professor of psychology, University of London, researcher on intelligence and personality, Learning Theory and Behavior Therapy. In Behavior Therapy and the Neuroses, Pergamon Press, S. 4, 1960, reissued by the US American bimonthly magazine Psychology Today, S. 27, December 1988

 

Recommendations

  • If we treat people as they are, we make them worse.
    If we treat people as they ought to be, we help them become what they are capable of becoming.
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832) German polymath, poet, playwright, dramatist, novelist, novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, book VIII, chapter 4, Johann Friedrich Unger, Berlin, 1795-1796

 

Critique on positive psychology

  • What the researchers don't help us to understand - and what will be essential to understand if we are ever to substantively broach human vitality – is how positivity ratios also appear to correlate with destructive human tendencies. For example, a growing body of research appears to suggest that what the researchers call high positivity – a disposition to pleasant, grateful, and upbeat feelings – is also correlative with a dimension called "positive illusion" (relative inaccuracy regarding reality); and that negativity (or what is generally characterized as mild to moderate depression) is correlated with relatively greater accuracy concerning reality. These findings, moreover, also appear to square with recent correlations between highly positive people and suppressed psychological growth, inability to self-reflect, and racial intolerance. Article by Kirk J. Schneider, Ph.D., US American leading spokesperson for contemporary existential-humanistic psychology, Toward a Humanistic Positive Psychology: Why Can't We Just Get Along? Why Positive Psychology should be a branch of Humanistic Psychology, 29. November 2010, excerpted from book Awakening to Awe. Personal Stories of Profound Transformation, Jason Aronson, Inc., 20. August 2009

 

Insights

 


Character Uriah Heep from Charles Dickens' David Copperfield,
Fred Barnard (1846-1896) Victorian English genre painter, 1870s
  • We're learning that positive emotions involve neural structures that are more mutable and subject to change. The preliminary evidence suggests that our propensity for positive emotion is inherited, but less so than negative emotions. That's an amazing message – you can cultivate these things. If you're 65, and you suddenly have this insight about life, you probably can shift gears. That's what the Dalai Lama is trying to teach us. Dacher Keltner, Ph.D., US American professor of psychology, University of California, Berkeley, director of the Greater Good Science Center, author, cited in: Article Public Affairs, presented by Berkeley News, Carol Hyman, 3. November 2003

 

  • The problem with psychoanalysis is that it purports to be able to cure people. This possibility I doubt very much. Freud was a doctor. So I guess he got paid to fix things and got carried away. But his view of the unconscious basis of decision making was essentially correct. We do not know how we decide things, and in a sense we don't really care. Roger Schank, US American psychologist, computer scientist, designer of E-Learning classes, author, cited in: article What Do You Believe Is True, presented by the nonprofit online magazine Edge, 2005

 

(↓)

Practicing of happiness by being in the flow

Watch also: Video presentation Thomas Jefferson's Practice of Happiness, presented by Optimal Living 101, YouTube film, 1:10 minutes duration, posted by Brian Johnson 24. November 2012

  • Eudaemonia, the good life, which is what Thomas Jefferson and Aristotle meant by the pursuit of happiness. They did not mean smiling a lot and giggling. Aristotle talks about the pleasures of contemplation and the pleasures of good conversation. Aristotle is not talking about raw feeling, about thrills, about orgasms. Aristotle is talking about what Mike Csikszentmihalyi works on, and that is, when one has a good conversation, when one contemplates well. When one is in eudaemonia, time stops. You feel completely at home. Self-consciousness is blocked. You're one with the music. Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, happiness researcher, educator, public speaker, author of self-help books, presented by Edge The Third Culture, presented by the nonprofit online magazine Edge, 23. March 2004

 

  • If the development of civilization has such a far-reaching similarity to the development of the individual and if it employs the same methods, may we not be justified in reaching the diagnosis that, under the influence of cultural urges, some civilizations. [...] possibly the whole of mankind, have become neurotic? Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis, deep psychologist, founder of psychoanalysis, critic of religion

 

  • Most people tell you they want to get out of kindergarten, but don't believe them. Don't believe them! All they want you to do is to mend their broken toys.
    "Give me back my wife.
    Give me back my job.
    Give me back my money.
    Give me back my reputation, my success."
This is what they want; they want their toys replaced. That's all. Even the best psychologist will tell you that, that people don't really want to be cured. What they want is relief; a cure is painful.
Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) Indian Catholic Jesuit priest, psychotherapist, spiritual leader, author

 

  • People have to suffer enough emotionally before they are ready to wake up. And what I was doing as a psychotherapist was easing the suffering. People have to suffer enough in a relationship that they get disillusioned with all relationships [...] before they wake up and say: "I'm sick of it. There must be another way of living than depending on another human being."
    [...] Sometimes what I was doing as a phychotherapist was a help and sometimes – I'm sorry to say – it wasn't because it kept that sleep. [...]
    May be they ought to touch rock bottom. [...] It's only when you say that you are sick of your sickness that you get out of it. Most people go to a psychotherapist or a psychologist to get relief. Video lecture by Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) Indian Catholic Jesuit priest, psychotherapist, spiritual leader, author, Wake Up to Life! – Awareness – On psychology, presented by Center for Spiritual Exchange and Tabor Publishing, 1986, YouTube film, minute 0:36, 7:34 minutes duration, posted 25. November 2008

 

  • In the office of the modern psychoanalyst, the stages of the hero-adventure come to light again in the dreams and hallucinations of the patient. Depth beyond depth of self-ignorance is fathomed, with the analyst in the role of the helper, an initiatory priest. And always [...] the adventure develops into a journey of darkness, horror, disgust, and phantasmagoric fears. Joseph Campbell, Ph.D. (1904-1987) US American mythologist, expert in comparative mythology and comparative religion, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, S. 121, Princeton University Press, 1949

 

(↓)

Projective identification

♦ A narcissist may project extremely powerful obliterating the distinction between self and other.
♦ Less disturbed personalities get rid of feelings and get help with them.
♦ An emotionally balanced person may use it as a bridge to empathy and intuitive understanding.

  • The one person does not use the other merely as a hook to hang projections on. He strives to find in the other, or to induce the other to become, the very embodiment of projection. Ronald D. Laing (1927-1989) British Scottish psychiatrist, Self and Others, S. 111, 1961, 1969, Penguin (Non-Classics), 1. January 1995

 

(↓)

Assymmetry in social studies favoring a small significant slice of humanity

Culture deeply shapes human cognition.

 

  • The tipping point ratio is 3-to-1. We need three positive emotions to lift us up for every negative emotion that drags us down. Video presentation by Barbara Fredrickson, Ph.D. (*1964) US American Kenan distinguished professor of (positive) psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Positive Emotions, presented by UNCCH, YouTube film, 8:33 minutes duration, posted 26. January 2009

 

(↓)

Schizophrenia

  • Summarizing what schizophrenia is really all about the really prominent features are captured by the terms hyper-reflexivity and alienation. Hyper-reflexivity by that I mean a kind of self-consciousness. I don't just mean the self-consciousness of say an adolescent, but rather the schizophrenic self-consciousness is something much more disruptive of the normal spontaneous flow of experience and behavior. And it can also happen intellectually so that one becomes aware of one's own thinking. […] They can get very engaged in a process of watching their own mind. And they will sometimes almost feel that they can kind of see the cognitive operations going on inside their skull. Or they may just sort of think about thinking and they may begin to analyze themselves too much. It can be extremely alienating and debilitating for the person. […] So a scrutinizing self-consciousness that is not relaxed and able to just accept itself ends up leading to an experience of there being no self. Louis Sass, Ph.D., US American professor of clinical psychology, graduate school of applied and professional psychology, Rutgers University, expert in severe psychopathology, philosophy and psychology, author, cited in: Soul Searching, part 2 of 3, excerpted from documentary DVD, broadcasted by US American Channel 4, YouTube film, minutes 1:56, 3:31, and 4:14, 10:24 minutes duration, posted 21. January 2010

Dunning–Kruger effect = Self-awareness deficit of incompetents = Lack of "knowing thyself"
[Paraphrased summary] Incompetent ignorant Westerners (not Easterners or Resteners) cannot know they're incompetent or deny their lack of skill, experience and knowledge (incompetence).
Much incorrect self-assessment of competence of Americans is due to the ignorance of the standards of performance of an activity (such as reading comprehension, motor-vehicle operation, playing chess or tennis, practice of medicine). Justin Kruger and David Dunning's research on patterns of overestimation of competence at Cornell University (1999) indicated that incompetent Westerners will:
➤ fail to recognize their own lack of skill,
➤ fail to recognize the extent of their inadequacy,
➤ fail to accurately gauge skill in others,
➤ recognize and acknowledge their lack of skill only after being exposed to formal training in that skill.
➤ The skills needed to produce a solution coincide with the skills needed to recognize what a right answer is.

 

References: en.Wikipedia entries Dunning–Kruger effect
Cognitive dissonanceCurse of knowledgeFour stages of competenceGrandiose delusionsHanlon's razorHubrisOptimism biasOverconfidence effectSelf-deceptionSelf-serving biasSuperiority complexUltracrepidarianism

Satire

(↓)

APA's admission: Mind / consciousness research has failed.

The mind cannot possibly study itself.

  • We’ve spent years trying to discern how the mind functions, but today I am forced to admit that this so-called research was nothing more than a fool's errand – and that we people of learning were the greatest fools of all. […] Can the eye watch itself? Can a book read its own pages? No. It’s now clear to us that despite all the painstakingly conducted studies and all the data we have meticulously gathered since the late 19th century, we have, in essence, been nothing more than the snake that devours its own tail. […] All that we thought we understood was merely a mirage crafted by the very unfathomable minds we once so stubbornly insisted we could know. Nadine Kaslow, Ph.D., US American professor of psychology, department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, Emory University, president of the American Psychological Association (APA), editor of the Journal of Family Psychology, fake press conference, 24. July 2014, cited in: Psychology Comes To Halt As Weary Researchers Say The Mind Cannot Possibly Study Itself, presented by satirical "news" source The Onion, issue 50•30, 31. July 2014

Englische Texte – English section on (Positive) Psychology

Correspondences of psychology

Psychological and alchemical correlations
Alchemical
operation
Psychology
Aspect
Psychology
Function
Purification
of
Needed
is
Conscious stateIntention
Aspiration
Negative qualitiesPositive qualities
CalcinationEgoThinking functionThoughtsFire
Solve
Materialistic, neuroticPenitence, maturity, planning, hope, integrationStubborn, slow, resigned, cold, fearful, phlegmaticPractical, patient, prudent
DissolutionIdSub-
conscious
Feeling function
FeelingsWater
Solve
Emotional blockages, nightmaresBeauty, friends, romance, pleasureExcessive, greedy, selfish love, limited view, melancholicGenerous, sociable, optimistic
SeparationEssencesIntuitive functionWillAir
Solve
Mindful
Aware of opposites
Affluence, wealth, courage, powerCruel, violent, angry, controlling, willful, cholericCourageous, daring, initiating, determined
ConjunctionEssences unitedSensation functionBodyEarth
Conjunct
Blissful
In love
Enraptured
Fertility, marriage, homemakingLustful, wanton, possessive, passionate, sanguineSensitive, loving, kind, appreciative, cheerful
Fermen-
tation
InspirationReligious fervorSoulSulfur
Coagula
Higher consciousness
Beyond physical desire
Wisdom, Intuition, Speech, Divine unionTricky, lying, sneaky, not connected to worldIntelligent, hopeful, lively, imaginative
DistillationDivine
cons-
ciousness
True objectivitySpiritMercury
Coagula
Equanimity
One-pointedness
Point source of consciousness
Knowledge, journey to the other side, psychic powersUnemotional, detached, aloofReflective, intuitive
CoagulationTrans-
personal
Self
God
The Stone
PresenceSalt
Coagula
Union with God, nirvana, satori, synchronicities, aware of non-selfSuccess, illumination, truly righteous, creative realizationArrogant, proud, over-confidentGenuinely confident, authentic, whole
Source: ► III. Correspondences of Psychology, presented by Alchemylab.com, issuing date unknown

Classic psychology experiments

List of important psychology studies and experiments effective in
conditioning and changing the general outlook on human behavior

Note: Resilience ratio – two thirds vs. one third
༺༻ExperimentLegendExperimentorLocation
Time frame
1.Pavlov's Classical Conditioning Experiments
with dogs
Revealing the concept of classical conditioningIvan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian physiologist, Nobel Prize winner, 1904Published
in 1927
2.The Asch Conformity Experiments12Revealing two thirds of conformity levels to which people follow or rebel (one third) against social norms.
–––––––––––––––––––––
See also: Confirmatory bias or myside bias Overconfidence or presumptuousness in personal beliefs, internal "yes man", Self-fulfilling prophecy
Solomon Asch (1907-1996) US American Gestalt psychologist, pioneer in social psychologyDuring the 1950s
3.Harlow's Rhesus Monkey ExperimentsRevealing the science of love and the nature of affection, demonstrating devastating effects of deprivation on young rhesus monkeys in an unethical and shockingly cruel way, outlining the importance of love for healthy childhood development.Harry Harlow (1905-1981)
US American psychologist, known for his maternal-separation and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys
University of Wisconsin-Madison
during the 1960s
4.The Milgram Obedience ExperimentParticipants delivered electrical shocks by order to a fake "learner" after an incorrect answers were given. To demonstrate the degree of willingness to obey commands of an authority figure; 65% = two thirds of the testees delivered the maximum level of shocks despite serious distress signs by the learners.Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) US American social psychologistNew Haven
in 1961
5.The Stanford Prison Experiment13Simulation experiment with students in the roles of prisoners and prison guards. The experiment was to last for two weeks. After six days it was halted due to abusiveness of guard testees who put  prisoner testees under extreme stress and anxiety.Philip G. Zimbardo (*1933) US American professor emeritus in psychologyStanford University
in 1971
6.Stanford Marshmallow Experiment14Revealing deferred gratification
In over 600 children a minority ate the marshmallow immediately.
One third deferred gratification long enough to get the second marshmallow.
Walter Mischel, Ph.D. (*1930) US American professor of psychology specializing in personality theory and social psychologyColumbia University
in 1972
7.Learned helplessness experiment15Conditioned dogs, repeatedly and inescapably hurt by an adverse stimulus, did not behave like outlined by B.F. Skinner's behaviorism. The animals reverted to stoical utter helplessness.
Caution: In 2001 Learned Helplessness became the basis of the CIA's torture program.16
Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, happiness researcher, educator, public speaker, author of self-help booksUniversity of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, 1967/1975
8.Libet experiment – Neuroscience of free will Preceded by Bereitschaftspotential [readiness potential], discovered by Lüder Deecke and Hans Helmut Kornhuber in 1964Benjamin Libet (1916-2007)
US American physiologist, pioneering human consciousness researcher
University of California, San Francisco, 1979
See also:
Pygmalion effect – Average people may perform at genius level.
Moral corruption by the power of controlling others – Lord of the Flies effect
Cognitive dissonance

Social psychology experiments

List of social psychology studies
༺༻ExperimentLegend
1.Halo effectMystery of the human mind
2.Cognitive dissonanceHumans lying to themselves
3.Robbers cave experiment by Mazaer SherifWar, peace and the role of power
4.Stanford prison experimentDark hearts
5.Obedience experiment by Stanley MilgramFollowing orders
6.False consensus biasReasons why humans stink as intuitive psychologists
7.Social identity theoryReasons why groups and prejudices form so easily
8.Don't ThreatenAvoiding bad bargains
9.Bystander apathyReasons why humans don't help others
10.Conforming to the normDeceived by one's eyes
Source: ► Article Why we do dumb or irrational things: 10 brilliant social psychology studies,
presented by PsyBlog, Jeremy Dean, reissued by Sott.net, 11. November 2013

Optimists vs. pessimists

Optimists tend to be more stress-hardy, more happy, draw less illnesses and live longer.
Pessimists tend to be much less happy, draw more illnesses and die earlier.

 

The founder of Positive psychology Dr. Martin Seligman distinguishes
pessimism and optimism by differentiating the attributional styles of people.
Selfabsorbed pessimists
take life's challenges [job loss, disease, divorce] as a
personal, pervasive, permanent threat (the 3 Ps).
Realistic optimists
take life's challenges more stress hardy
by seeing them as possibilities for change for the better.
They take difficult situations in life as personal.They see things realistically as a challenge for ingenuity and change.
They see problems as pervasive.They keep a sense of sovereignity – in areas where they (still) have it.
They see their problems as permanent.
"It is never going to change."]
They have a commitment to a world view that expands possibilities.

 

Both optimists and pessimists contribute to society. The optimist invents the aeroplane, the pessimist the parachute. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) Irish politician, pacifist, satirist, dramatist, Nobel laureate in literature, 1925, unsourced

Resilience ratio: Two thirds unconscious ⇔ one third awakening

The Austrian psychotherapist and Nazi concentration camp survivor Viktor Frankl found meaning in his intense suffering. The spiritual / soul life strengthened the camp prisoners, helped them adapt, and so improved their chances of survival. It was a matter of the attitude of the prisoners who had a better chance to survive camp.

 

Psychoanalyst, child psychologist, and Nazi concentration camp survivor Bruno Bettelheim (1903-1990) found the sociological tripartition formula applicable to those who are faced with an extreme crisis in life. He published his findings in his book The Informed Heart. Autonomy in a Mass Age in 1979:

  1. One third of the people deported to the camps died during the transport – out of fear to starve.
  2. The other third died in the camp when food was short, life was hard-hard, and trust was low.
  3. The last third had a chance to survive as they kept trusting in an inviolable instance within themselves.

 

Bread and games keep the masses going.
When survival and play are jeopardized TRUST into the unknown becomes an essential asset.

 

Three kinds of reaction patterns when faced with traumatic conditions
Tripartition"Bread and games" metaphorReactionBehaviorExemplified by death camp survivors
1st thirdWithout BREAD they are incapable to ...!They cannot.Giving upOne third of the Jews and Sinti who were deported into Nazi death camps died during the transportation out of fear and the uncertain prospect of living in a death camp.
2nd thirdWithout GAMES that ordinary people play they are unwilling to ...!They don't want to.Drying upThe second third died during the death camp imprisonment, because conditions there were unbearable for them.
3rd thirdWith hardly any BREAD and GAMES they ENDURE the hardship.
___________________
TRUST in what is happening despite the hardship is the trump that lets people survive amidst the hardest circumstances.
They endure the situation patiently and trustingly.
___________________
When the Tipping Point is reached, Transformation is at hand.
Keeping
it up
The last third was released in miraculous ways or else it survived the tortures of personal disempowerment until they were freed by Allied troups. Those who were free men again owe this to the power of their mind and soul, their unswerving trust in their destiny and their physical discipline.

 

Austrian-born author Bruno Bettelheim suggested:

  1. Eat/drink what's available.
  2. Excrement regularly.
  3. Stay up and present.
  4. Read whatever you can read.
  5. Try to communicate under adverse conditions.
Note: Above recommentations conincide with the lower and middle rungs of the pyramid of needs created by the US American psychologist Abraham Maslow.

 

Note: Bruno Bettelheim was a spirit adverse Freudian who survived the Nazi death camp. Decades later in his career
he committed suicide. It became apparent that his writings and his actions were not congruent in the long run.

 

(↓)

Three kinds of people:
༺♥༻ Immovables
༺♥༻ Movables
༺♥༻ Moving ones

All mankind is divided into three classes:
  1. Those that are immovable,
  2. those that are movable,
  3. and those that move.
Attributed by Benjamin Franklin ['The First American', US 'Founding Father'] (1706-1705) US American statesman, political theorist, occultist, polymath, diplomat, civic activist, author

 

Note:
♦◊♦ The Greek philosopher Socrates lived by the guidance of his inner voice (daemon). A two thirds majority of the committee in Athens sentenced him to death (by hemlock poison) in 399 BC.
♦◊♦ Two thirds of the US Americans favor prosperity over fairness [social justice]. [Status 2011]
♦◊♦ The apocalyptic Revelation (last book of the New Testament) refers to the 2/3 vs. 1/3 ratio:
Two thirds of mankind will perish whereas a third of mankind will rise after enduring the shortened "tribulation" period.

 

See also:
Classic psychology experiments: Solomon Ash (1950s) and Stanley Milgram (1961) found that two thirds of the subject were conforming with authority whereas one third of the test persons refused to take non-ethical orders from authority. They carried out the dictum of their inner value structure.
Progression of addiction:
Two thirds remain in addiction mode, one third endures the sobering relearning process.
Siehe auch: ► Krebsheilung – Zwei Drittel ⇔ Ein Drittel-Verhältnis [Healing of cancer – Ratio of two thirds ⇔ one third]

Listing cognitive biases

58 cognitive biases
༺༻          Bias I                    Bias II                    Bias III          
1.Affect heuristicAnchoring biasConfirmation bias
2.Observer-expectancy effectBandwagon effectBias blind spots
3.Choice-supportive biasClustering illusionConservatism bias
4.ConformityCurse of knowledgeDecoy effect
5.Denomination effectDuration neglectAvailability heuristic
6.Empathy gapFrequency illusionFundamental attribution error
7.Galatea effectHalo effectHard-Easy bias
8.HerdingHindsight biasHyperbolic discounting
9.Ideometer effectIllusion of controlInformation bias
10.Inter-group biasIrrational escalationNegativity bias
11.Omission biasOstrich effectOutcome bias
12.OverconfidenceOveroptimismPessimism bias
13.Placebo effectPlanning fallacyPost-purchase rationalization
14.PrimingPro-innovation biasProcrastination
15.ReactanceRecencyReciprocity
16.Regression biasRestraint biasSalience
17.Scope insensitivitySeersucker illusionSelective perception
18.Self-enhancing transmission biasStatus quo biasStereotyping
19.Survivorship biasTragedy of the commonsUnit bias
20.Zero-risk bias  
Source: ► Article 58 Cognitive Biases that Screw up Everything We Do, presented by German-owned American business,
celebrity and technology news website Business Insider, Drake Baer and Gus Lubinjun, 18. January 2014
See also:
Cognitive dissonance
Classic psychology experiments
Pygmalion effect – Average people may perform at genius level.
Lord of the Flies effect – Moral corruption by the power of controlling others

Characteristics of and myths about introverts

Behavioral patterns of introverts
1.You find small talk incredibly cumbersome.
2.You go to parties – but not to meet people.
3.You often feel alone in a crowd.
4.Networking makes you feel like a phony.
5.You've been called "too intense."
6.You're easily distracted.
7.Downtime doesn’t feel unproductive to you.
8.Giving a talk in front of 500 people is less stressful than having to mingle with those people afterwards.
9.When you get on the subway, you sit at the end of the bench – not in the middle.
10.You start to shut down after you’ve been active for too long.
11.You're in a relationship with an extrovert.
12.You'd rather be an expert at one thing than try to do everything.
13.You actively avoid any shows that might involve audience participation.
14.You screen all your calls – even from friends.
15.You notice details that others don't.
16.You have a constantly running inner monologue.
17.You have low blood pressure.
18.You’ve been called an "old soul" since your 20s.
19.You don't feel "high" from your surroundings.
20.You look at the big picture.
21.You’ve been told to "come out of your shell."
22.You’re a writer.
23.You alternate between phases of work and solitude, and periods of social activity.
Source: ► Article 23 Signs You're Secretly An Introvert, presented by the US American
liberal-oriented online newspaper The Huffington Post, Carolyn Gregoire, 20. August 2013

 

⚠ NOTE: In 2010 the American Psychiatric Association considered classifying "introverted personality" as a disorder by listing it in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), used to diagnose mental illness, published on 18. May 2013.

 

Untrue widespread beliefs on introverts
Myth #1Introverts don’t like to talk.
Myth #2Introverts are shy.
Myth #3Introverts are rude.
Myth #4Introverts don’t like people.
Myth #5Introverts don’t like to go out in public.
Myth #6Introverts always want to be alone.
Myth #7Introverts are weird.
Myth #8Introverts are aloof nerds.
Myth #9Introverts don’t know how to relax and have fun.
Myth #10Introverts can fix themselves and become extroverts.
Source: ► 10 Myths About Introverts, via Carl King Creative, Eli Bishop, 27. July 2011

 

(↓)

A third of the population are introverts.

Following their calling allows them to step out.

  • Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, Gandhi – all these peopled described themselves as quiet and soft-spoken and even shy. And they all took the spotlight, even though every bone in their bodies was telling them not to. Video presentation by Susan Cain (*1968) US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, lecturer, author of Quiet, The power of introverts [Die Macht der Introvertierten], transcript, presented by TED Talks 2012, minute 6:54, 19:04 minutes duration, filmed February 2012, posted March 2012

 

Literature:
► Sophia Dembling, US American introvert, author, The Introvert's Way. Living a Quiet Life in a Noisy World, Perigee Trade, 4. December 2012
Susan Cain (*1968) US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, author, Quiet. The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking, Broadway Books, 29. January 2013
Articles:
6 Illustrations That Show What It’s Like in an Introvert’s Head, presented by quietrev.com, Liz Fosslien and Mollie West, February 2016
‘Introvert or Extrovert’ Is the Wrong Way to Define Your Identity, presented by Science of US, Drake Baer, 27. October 2016
10 Reasons Why Introverts Make The Best Partners, presented by Archetypes, 2015
1. Faithfulness, 2. Great listeners, 3. Freedom, 4. Thoughtfulness, 5. Honesty, 6. Great communication, 7. Choices, 8. Intimacy,
9. Seeing the other side of life, 10. Unterstanding the mystery of life

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Personal avowal

(↓)

Proper treatment of ADHD symptoms

  • When I was fourteen I was a very violent kid for most of my life. […] They [doctors, school] wanted to drug me. My mother – instead of drugging me – she got a man about 40 years old, a lavender farmer, to come and hang out with me once a week. Suddenly I kind of stopped being violent, I started plateauing.
I wasn't the fact that I had something wrong, or a chemical imbalance, that could be corrected with a drug. It was that I didn't have my dad around or any positive role model in order to learn how to be a proper, good, decent man. I saw those symptoms [written on the ADHD pamphlet] again on a slideshow presentation that I was being shown at university. And those symptoms were describing an entrepreneur. Video interview with Mellen-Thomas Benedict, most researched US American near-death experiencer, inventor, Life In A Prison and Near Death Experiences Mellen Thomas Benedict, presented by the New Zealand online radio show The Vinny Eastwood Show, host Vinny Eastwood (*1984), YouTube film, minute 53:27, 1:30:27 duration, recorded 21. February 2013, posted 10. October 2014

 

         Taming wild young elephants with ear flapping elders         

 

Young bull elephants in Africa were acting strangely out of character – antisocial and aimlessly vio­lent; they were stomping on VWs, pushing over trees for no reason, and even killing other small animals and baby elephants. [*]


African elephant with ears spread in a threat or attentive position

Park rangers came in to study the problem to discover that there were no older bull elephants in that area. By some accident, all the older bulls had either died or been poached for their ivory, which left the teenage males to roam and forage out of control.

 

The rangers brought in some older bulls from other areas by helicopter, lowered them onto the scene, and in a mat­ter of weeks, amazingly, the whole situation had changed. Apparently, all the old bulls did was wave their ears and make various sounds or small charges, and somehow the younger male elephants understood through these com­munications that their behavior was not exactly the way growing up elephant boys should act. It seemed to be just that simple. Things soon returned to normal once the elders operated as elders.

[*] The violent acting out of young elephant bulls is due to the so called musth.
Reference: ► Father Richard Rohr O.F.M. (*1943) US American Franciscan friar, author, Adam's Return.
The Five Promises of Male Initiation
, Crossroad Publishing Company, 2. November 2004
See also:
Gewalt – Violence and ► Stories
Men's health within the domination system

 

(↓)

Hoffer called for a system's change at age 89: Holding doctors accountable for doing a lousy job

  • The main message has to be that we have to change the [medical] system. The system is sick and corrupt. Eventually, we have to make the medical profession accountable. [...] We have to ask them: Why is the medical profession not held accountable? We need an independent commission headed by a judge to examine why doctors don't do a better job. Big Pharma controls medicine today. […] And they control [and advertising and] the journals. [...] We are in a terrible situation. The system is really sick. And you can quote me literally. I think, the system is absolutely sick [dysfuntional]. And it has to be changed. […] We have to let the public exactly know what's happening, because right now they don't know. Video interview with Abram Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D. (1917-2009) Canadian psychiatrist, biochemist, agricultural chemist, Natural Cure for Depression, Bipolar, ADHD, Schizophrenia, YouTube film, sponsored by Healthy Mind Body Planet Tour 2006, minute 6:27 and 8:21, 9:26 minutes duration, posted 15. December 2007

 

(↓)

Early childhood experiences to the development of the brain

Minute 14:22: ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: 1. (General) Poor impulse control, 2. Physical hyperactivity 3. Poor attention skills

 


Zappelphilip syndrome

 

  • The stress quotient is increasing on parents. Video interview with Gabor Maté, M.D. drgabormate.com (*1944) Hungarian-Canadian physician, addiction expert, speaker, author, Parental Stress and Its Impact on Kids, sponsored by KMT Child Development and Community conference, Toronto, presented by TVOparents.com, host Cheryl Jackson, YouTube film, minute 7:44, 13:26 minutes duration, posted by tvoparents 25. May 2012

 

(↓)

Early childhood experiences to the development of the brain:

ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: 1. (General) poor impulse control, 2. Physical hyperactivity 3. Poor attention skills

  • The conditions in which children develop have been so corrupted and troubled [in post-industrial capitalism] over the last several decades that the template for normal childhood development is no longer present. Video interview with Gabor Maté, M.D. drgabormate.com (*1944) Hungarian-Canadian physician, addiction expert, speaker, author, Stress-Disease Connection, Addiction and the Destruction of American Childhood, presented by US American Democracy Now!, US American non-profit TV station, host Amy Goodman (*1957) US American broadcast journalist, syndicated columnist, investigative reporter, author, minute 14:22, 59:05 minutes duration, aired (Feb 2010-Jun 2011) 25. December 2012

 

(↓)

ADHD is suffering from childhood within a conformist patriarchy.

  • Children are not, for the most part, suffering from psychological conditions [like ADHD]. They are suffering from childhood. Kids prosper best with a broad curriculum that celebrates their various talents, not just a small range of them. Video presentation by Sir Ken Robinson (*1950) British professor of arts education, University of Warwick (1989-2001), director of The Arts in Schools Project (1985-1989), international advisor on education, speaker, author, How to escape education's death valley, presented by TED Talks Education, New York City, minute 5:41, 19:11 minutes duration, filmed April 2013, posted May 2013

 

(↓)

Seven months before his death at age 87 Russian Jewish American psychiatrist and "scientific father of ADHD" Leon Eisenberg confessed in his last interview.

 


Blooming lavender
  • When men share housework and childcare,
    ➤ their children do better in school.
    ➤ Their children have lower rates of absenteeism,
    ➤ higher rates of achievement.
    ➤ They are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.
    ➤ They are less likely to see a child psychiatrist.
    ➤ They are less likely to be put on medication.
    ➤ their children are happier and healthier, and men want this.
    ➤ Their wives are happier. Duh.
    ➤ Not only that, their wives are healthier.
    ➤ Their wives are less likely to see a therapist, less likely to be diagnosed with depression,
    ➤ less likely to be put on medication, more likely to go to the gym,
    ➤ report higher levels of marital satisfaction.
    ➤ their wives are happier and healthier, and men certainly want this as well.
    ➤ the men are healthier.
    ➤ They smoke less, drink less, take recreational drugs less often.
    ➤ They are less likely to go to the ER but more like to go to a doctor for routine screenings.
    ➤ They are less likely to see a therapist, less likely to be diagnosed with depression,
    ➤ less likely to be taking prescription medication.
    ➤ the men are happier and healthier.
    ➤ And finally, the have more sex.
    Video presentation by Michael Kimmel, Ph.D. (*1951) US American professor of sociology, pre-eminent scholar of men and masculinity, gender researcher, Stony Brook University, New York, founder and editor of the academic journal Men and Masculinities, Michael Kimmel: Why gender equality is good for everyone — men included, transcript, presented by TEDWomen 2015, Monterey, California, 15:58 minutes duration, filmed 27-29 May 2015

 

(↓)

Note:

Motivational deficit, character failing rather and five underdeveloped brain regions

  • Up to 11 percent of U.S. children and around 5 percent of U.S. adults have been diagnosed with ADHD, which causes symptoms like difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, irritability and forgetfulness.
    A team of Dutch neuroscientists analyzed MRI scans of the brains of more than 3,200 people between the ages of four and 63 years old (with a median age of 14 years old), measuring total brain volume as well as the volume of seven brain regions thought to be linked to ADHD. Roughly half of the participants had a diagnosis of ADHD. The brain scans revealed that five brain regions were smaller in people with ADHD. These include the amygdala, an almond-shaped structure involved in processing emotions like fear and pleasure; the hippocampus, which plays a role in learning, memory and emotion; and three brain areas within the striatum – the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the nucleus accumbens. The structures within the striatum are involved in the brain's reward system and in its processing of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that helps control motivation and pleasure. ADHD involves delayed brain development. Article People With ADHD Have Different Brains, presented by the US American liberal-oriented online newspaper The Huffington Post, Carolyn Gregoire, 24. February 2017

 

ADHD statistics in America (France) – ~2016
⚑  ~5% of US of US adults have been diagnosed with ADHD.
⚑ Less than 5% of French children are diagnosed and medicated for ADHD.
⚑ 11% of US children and around 5 percent of US adults have been diagnosed with ADHD.
⚑ 1 in 10 US children has ADHD.
⚑ 10% of high school pupils are prescribed drugs for ADHD.
⚑ 40% of adolescents with ADHD have been arrested by their 18th birthday.[*]
Reference: en.Wikipedia entries
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
► Personality Leon Eisenberg, M.D., D.Sc. [Scientific father of ADHD] (1922-2009)
    US American child psychiatrist, social psychiatrist, medical educator

Literature

HIGHLY overdiagnosed, Saul calls ADHD "neurochemical distractability/impulsivity".

Articles

Certain brain structures related to emotion and reward are smaller in people with the disorder, new research finds.

Video links

  • RSA Animate presentation by Sir Ken Robinson (*1950) British professor of arts education, University of Warwick (1989-2001), international advisor on education, director of The Arts in Schools Project (1985-1989), speaker, author, Changing education paradigms, presented by TED Talks, 11:40 minutes duration, recorded October 2010, posted December 2010

Divergent thinking study – multiple answers to interperting a question
Link between three troubling trends: 1. Rising drop-out rates 2. Schools' dwindling stake in the arts 3. ADHD

An underdeveloped anterior cingulate cortex in the brain of an ADHD patient results in poor emotional regulation of conflictuous social interaction.

  • Interview with Gabor Maté, M.D. drgabormate.com (*1944) Hungarian-Canadian physician, addiction expert, speaker, author, Parental Stress and Its Impact on Kids, location: KMT Child Development and Community conference in Toronto, presented by TVOparents.com, host Cheryl Jackson, YouTube film, 13:26 minutes duration, posted by tvoparents 25. May 2012

Parental stress and its negative impact on children; autism and ADHD – Minute 4:07 and Minute 6:38

ADHD i.e. absent-mindedness as a coping mechanism, active recall and implicit memory, counter-will
Postpartum depression in 20% of all mothers is a risk factor for ADD in the child.

Enormous rise of ADHD diagnosed US children, research into the origin of the perceived disorder = evolutionary adaption instead of a disorder.

Therapeutic shitology

 Comparative therapies 101 – Humorous
༺༻Therapy formRespective shitology
1.Freudian therapyYour mother makes shit happen.
2.BehaviourismShit happens after the bell sounds.
3.Rational emotive therapyOwn your shit.
4.Cognitive therapyThink about your shit rationally.
5.Humanistic therapyYour shit is good.
6.Gestalt therapyWhere is your shit in this moment?
7.Play therapy Play with your shit.
8.Solution-focused therapy How do you want your shit to be different
9.Narrative therapy Shit happens in your own story.
10.Couples therapy You're shit.
11.Family therapy Someone has to be responsible for this shit.
12.Group therapy Share your shit.
13.Harm reduction therapy How can you make shit less important in your life?
14.12 step therapy Admit you are powerless over shit.
15.Brief therapy This shit better be over soon.
16.Systemic therapy Make a nice recursion out of your shit.
17.Pyramidal meditative intervention therapy Get your shit in a pile.

Not enough cow dung!


Cow dung

Johnny goes to modeling class in his school for special [mentally retarded] children and he gets his piece of putty and he's modeling it. He takes a little lump of putty and goes to a corner of the room and he's playing with it.
The teacher comes up to him and says,

"Hi, Johnny."
And Johnny says,
"Hi."

And the teacher says,

"What's that you've got in your hand?"

And Johnny says,

"This is a lump of cow dung."

The teacher asks,

"What are you making out of it?"

He says,

"I'm making a teacher."

The teacher thought,

"Little Johnny has regressed."

So she calls out to the principal, who was passing by the door at that moment, and says,

"Johnny has regressed."

So the principal goes up to Johnny and says,

"Hi, son."

And Johnny says,

"Hi."

And the principal says,

"What do you have in your hand?"

And he says,

"A lump of cow dung."
"What are you making out of it?"

And he says,

"A principal."

The principal thinks that this is a case for the school psychologist.

"Send for the psychologist!"

Cow dung

The psychologist is a clever guy. He goes up and says,

"Hi."

And Johnny says,

"Hi."

And the psychologist says,

"I know what you've got in your hand." "What?" "A lump cow dung."

Johnny says,

"Right."
"And I know what you're making out of it."
"What?"
"You're making a psychologist."
"Wrong. Not enough cow dung!"
Source: ► Video lecture by Anthony de Mello SJ (1931-1987) Indian Jesuit priest, psychotherapist, spiritual leader,
Wake Up to Life! – Awareness – On psychology, presented by Center for Spiritual Exchange and
Tabor Publishing, 1986, YouTube film, minute 2:03 out of 7:34 minutes duration, posted 25. November 2008

Gestalt prayer – Fritz Perls

The Gestalt Prayer
I am I – and you are you.

I do my thing and you do your thing.
I am not in this world to live up to your expectations
And you are not in this world to live up to mine.

You are you and I am I.
And if by chance we find each other, it's beautiful,
If not, it can't be helped.'''

 

Source: ► Fritz Perls (1893-1970) German-born US American psychiatrist, psychotherapist,
Gestalt Therapy pioneer, Gestalt prayer in "Gestalt Therapy Verbatim", 1969

 

Links zum Thema (Positive) Psychologie / (Positive) Psychology

Literatur

Literature (engl.)

Externe Weblinks

External web links (engl.)


Introverts tend to be a bit more empathetic than extroverts.

Audio- und Videolinks

  • Video TV Präsentation von George Pennington, britisch-deutscher Psychologe, Trainer, Coach, Autor, Wie funktioniert Mensch-Sein, Teil 1/13 der Sendereihe Bewusst leben. Psychologie für den Alltag, präsentiert von TV-Sender BR alpha, gesendet 2005 und 2013, YouTube Film, 14:13 Minuten Dauer, eingestellt 22. Januar 2011

Audio and video links (engl.)

Human tendency to negativity

  • Video presentation by Susan Cain (*1968) US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, lecturer, author of Quiet, The power of introverts [Die Macht der Introvertierten], transcript, presented by TED Talks 2012, 19:04 minutes duration, filmed February 2012, posted March 2012

2:3 ratio: At least one-third of the population are introverts, roughly two-thirds are extroverts.

Testing the dark side of authority-obedience: Milgram experiment and other harm-inducing human behavior experiments

Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) US American social psychologist: "Under what conditions would a person obey authority who commanded actions that went against conscience?" Minute 4:18

  • Video keynote address by Jordan Peterson, Ph.D. (*1962) Canadian clinical psychologist, professor of psychology, University of Toronto, political scientist, author, Psychology of Redemption in Christianity, sponsored by 2012 Meaning Conference, University of Toronto, Canada, 26.-29. July 2012, YouTube film, 46:36 minutes duration, posted 14. December 2012, reposted 26. January 2016
  • Video presentation by Susan Cain, US American former corporate lawyer, negotiations consultant, self-described introvert, author, The Power of Introverts, recorded by the event video production company Fora.tv, 47:54 minutes duration, aired 21. August 2013
  • Video TV interview with Paula Joan Caplan, Ph.D. (*1947) US American clinical and research psychologist, activist, social justice and human rights advocate, DSM-defiant, actor, director, award-winning playwright, screenwriter, nonfiction writer, How psychiatrists decide who's normal?, presented by Canadian TV station TVO, Ontario, host Allan Gregg (*1952) Canadian political advisor, pollster, pundit, YouTube film, 25:02 minutes duration, 12. October 2013

After rereading Freud's thesis on the mental label "women's masochism", defined as "pleasure in pain", Caplan, missing the term 'Macho personality disorder' defeated Freud in 'The Myth of Women's Masochism.' 'Women's masochism' was redefined as selfdefeating personality disorder, proposed in DSM III-R for further review.

  • Video interview with Louis Sass, Ph.D., US American professor of clinical psychology, graduate school of applied and professional psychology, Rutgers University, expert in severe psychopathology, philosophy and psychology, author, Louis Sass OH HD 2016, presented by Sagacity, host John Z. Sadler, Vimeo video, 1:11:03 duration, posted 21. January 2017


Audio and video links (engl.) – Martin Seligman

  • TV Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, presented by BBC World News, program HARDtalk, YouTube film, posted 19. December 2007
    • HARDtalk, part 1 of 3, 3:34 minutes duration
      "Optimistic people live 8 to 9 years longer than pessimists." Minute ??
    • HARDtalk, part 2 of 3, 3:15 minutes duration
    • HARDtalk, part 3 of 3, 5:08 minutes duration
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Positive Psychology and Psychotherapy, free online magazine Psychotherapy.net, Randall C. Wyatt, YouTube film, 3:23 minutes duration, posted 6. May 2009
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Counter-Intuitive Findings, presented by happier.com, YouTube film, 1:04 minutes duration, posted 4. October 2009
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Definition of Optimism, presented by happier.com, YouTube film, 2:00 minutes duration, posted 4. October 2009
  • Video Interview with Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US American professor of psychology, educator, author of self-help books, happiness researcher, public speaker, author, Top Strengths, presented by happier.com, YouTube film, 1:56 minutes duration, posted 4. October 2009

Audio and video links (engl.) – Tal Ben-Shahar

 

Interne Links

Wegbereiter und Forschende

English

Hawkins

 

 

1 Merton, R.K., The self-fulfilling prophecy, The Antioch Review, # 8, S. 193-210, 1948

2 Leon Festinger ||(1919-1989) US American social psychologist, known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory, Stanley Schachter (1922-1997) US American social psychologist, Henry Riecken, classic work of social psychology When Prophecy Fails. A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group That Predicted the Destruction of the World, Harper-Torchbooks, New York, 1. January 1956

3 Solomon E. Asch (1907-1996) polnisch-US-amerikanischer Gestaltpsychologe, Pionier der Sozialpsychologie, Studies of independence and conformity. A minority of one against a unanimous majority, [Themenheft] Psychological Monographs, 70, 1956

4 Leon Festinger (1919-1989) US American social psychologist, known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory, James M. Carlsmith, Cognitive consequences of forced compliance, presented by Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, # 58, S. 203-210, 1959

5 Lifton, R.J., Thought reform and the psychology of totalism, Norton & Company, New York, 1963

6 Julian B. Rotter (*1916) US-amerikanischer Psychologe, Entwickler der sozialen Lerntheorie und der Theorie der Kontrollüberzeugungen, Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement [Themenheft] Psychological Monographs, 80, 1966

7 Hernandez-Peon, R., Physiological mechanisms in attention, cited in: R.W. Russel (Hrsg.), Frontiers in physiological psychology, Academic Press, New York, 1966

8 Artikel von Dr. Philip G. Zimbardo (*1933) US-amerikanischer Professor Emeritus für Sozialpsychologie, Stanford University, Autor, The human choice. Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse and chaos; zitiert in: W.D. Arnold, D. Levine, Herausgeber, Nebraska symposum on motivation, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1969

9 B. Weiner, Herausgeber, Achievement motivation and attribution theory, General Learning Press, Morristown, 1974

10 Milgram, S., Obedience to authority, Harper & Row, New York, 1974

11 Martin Seligman, Ph.D. (*1942) US-amerikanischer Professor für Psychologie, Universität von Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Autor, Helplessness. On Depression, Development, and Death, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1975, Neudruck Juni 1992

12 Video documentary Asch Conformity Experiment procured by Solomon Asch during the 1950s, presented by Philip G. Zimbardo, Ph.D. (*1933) US American professor emeritus of social psychology, Stanford University, author, YouTube film, 5:45 minutes duration, posted by HeroicImaginationTV 19. February 2012

13 Kendra Van Wagner, On psychology experiments, presented by About.com, 30. October 2009

14 Marshmallow study, Sybervision.com

15 Learned Helplessness (LH) is defined as "the condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed."

16 Article Penn prof. 'horrified' life's research is connected to CIA torture techniques , presented by US American newspaper The Daily Pennsylvanian, Dan Spinelli, 22. December 2014

Letzte Bearbeitung:
22.07.2017 um 02:23 Uhr

Page generated in 1,467 seconds.